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APUSH Ch. 24 Review

AP US History American Pageant 13th Ed. Chapter 24 Review (Vocab + Questions) Also used: http://wikinotes.wikidot.com/chapter-24-13
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transcontinental railroad
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US; main goal for rails
Union Pacific Railroad
Congress commissioned this railroad to push westward from Omaha, Nebraska to California
Central Pacific Railroad
started in California, and pushed eastward; eventually connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah
Leland Stanford
headed up the railroad efforts from California
Northern Pacific Railroad
railroad from Lake Superior to Puget Sound
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
railroad from Kansas to California
Southern Pacific
from New Orleans to San Francisco
Great Northern
from Duluth, MN to Seattle
Cornelius Vanderbilt
began consolidating the New York Central line; this led to cheaper fares/rates and faster travel times
steel rails
replaced the older technology of iron rails
standardized gauge
used to measure the distance between tracks
air brake
invention that greatly increased efficiency and safety in trains
Pullman Palace Cars
luxury passenger cars that were built and were very popular for travelers
time zones
railroads led to the creating of this to help coordinate times between different areas
kickbacks
frequent bribes given to governmental officials and major customers
pools
where competitors agreed to cooperate as if they were one mega company
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Wabash case
1886 supreme court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
1877 act passed by Congress that outlawed rebates and pools
Richard Olney
Began as a leading corporate lawyer who noted that the Interstate Commerce Act could help the railroads
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone as a part-time hobby while teaching the deaf to speak
Thomas Edison
inventor of the light bulb as well as many, many other inventions
Liquid capital
(money or a millionaire class) emerged to build new businesses
typewriter
invention which helped bring women to work
Andrew Carnegie
Built a steel mill empire; US Steel Corporation
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy; founded the Standard Oil Company and nearly monopolized the Oil Industry
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution; Rockefeller used it to either force a competitor out of business or buy them out to grow even larger
interlocking directorates
placed own men on boards of directors of rival competitors
J.P. Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time; used interlocking directorates
Bessemer Process
an industrial process for making steel using a converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
economies of scale
where large companies produce a cheaper product and thus put even more pressure on the "little guy"
horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Gustavus Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
Philip Armour
meat-packing entrepreneur; worth $50 million when died in 1901 due to innovation and efficiency of his company
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists.
This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion
Russell Conwell
He was a Revered and a staunch advocate of Social Darwinism.
He became rich by delievering his sermon/lecture "Acres of Diamonds" thousands of times; his theme was that people earn their lots in life, either good or bad.
plutocracy
a political system governed by the wealthy people
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Act passed in 1890 that attempted to outlaw trusts or monopolies
James Buchanan Duke
Formed the American Tabacco Company, controlled 90% of the cigarette market
Henry Grady
editor of the Atlanta Constitution, urged Southerners to beat the Yankees at their own game of industry
Charles Dana Gibson
United States illustrator remembered for his creation of the 'Gibson girl'
ironclad oaths
where workers pledged to not join a union
National Labor Union
organized in 1866 have about 600,000 members agitated for arbitration of disputes and an 8 hour workday
Knights of Labor
Union open to everyone but "non producers": liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers; they sought workers' cooperatives (to pool their money and resources), better working conditions, and the 8 hour workday
Terence Powderly
a well-known national figure as leader of the Knights of Labor from 1883-1893
Haymarket Square Incident
(1886) Chicago police advanced on a meeting that had been called to protest supposed brutalities by authorities. Dynamite bomb thrown and dozens were killed. Knights of labor were blamed for this incident, and lost public support
John Atlgeld
Governor who pardoned the three anarchists who were involved in the bombing at the Haymarket Square Incident
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor; made up of skilled craftsmen
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