Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (218)
San people preserved water in what?
Magellan found what?
Act passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Popularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Laws Britain passed to make sure that all goods were
carried only on British ships and that they went to Britain first before going to other countries.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
2nd Continental Congress,
Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution
In 1773, law that let the British East Indian Company bypass tea merchants and sell directly to colonists.
Franco American Treaty
France formally joined America in the war; recognized American independence; pledged a military alliance
George Washington's home
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
supporters of the Constitution
A group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
General Thomas Gage
British general in the Revolution. He was commander in chief of the North American forces and military governor of the Province of MA Bay.
General William Howe
He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777. He resigned in 1778.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Armed conflict between two massed enemies
Complete failure and ruin
A formal agreement between two or more sovereign states
In the late 1700s, many middle class people- writers, poets, musicians, government officials- would meet in the salon of someone's home to discuss the ideas of the Enlightenment.
A monarch whose power is not limited by a representative assembly.
Funny and popular, he believed in religious freedom and used humor to get his point across.
Marquis de Lafayette
Believed in the Enlightenment ideas so much that he bought a ship and went to fight with the American Colonists. He was a hero in France and the USA. Many French men fought in the American Revolution.
His Age of Enlightenment idea is that all men are born free but end up in chains. This was SHOCKING.
Wrote the Persian Letters and was harsh on the king.
King Louis XIV (the Sun King)
Believed he was the center of the world and the sun (like everything) resolved around him.
The Palace of Versailles
11 miles outside of Paris for protection. As big as 7 football fields, and had 1000 rooms. King forced powerful nobles to live there part of the year
Became King at 5 years old. Was isolated from the people of France. Left the country in financial ruins.
Great Grandson of Louis XV.
Became King at 20 years old.
The title given to the prince who is the next in line to inherit the French throne (be king).
Before the king had absolute power the E.G. would meet to advise him an approve new taxes. They had not met in over 100 years. The E.G. rules said each Estate met with the king separately and casted on vote. (Who are in the estates?) The first and second estates met with the king in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles.
The Tennis Court Oath
When the king locked the doors of the National Assembly meeting hall. They did not go away, instead they met at the royal indoor tennis court. There they signed an agreement that promised they would stay together until a new constitution was written.
The king's finance minister who sided with the National Assembly was fired. Many believed he was the only one who could control the price of bread and make tax reforms (changes that would save the country from bankruptcy)
French noblemen who fled France to save their lives.
The Great Fear
A time of violence and confusion that was the fault of the peasants that happened while the National Assembly was meeting at Versailles to work on a constitution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
With violence around the country, the National Assembly is meeting to draft a new constitution. It began with a clear understanding of the basic freedoms for all.
The original palace of the king in Paris, before Versailles was built.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
The king and others are responsible for enforcing the laws that the National Assembly Make.
Two groups are now in the New Legislative Assembly:
The Conservatives and Radicals
One who opposes rapid change and wants to keep traditional values.
Someone who favors extreme change.
A government run by representatives elected by the people (Like the USA)
A machine designed to behead people quickly and with little pain.
In charge of the Committee of Public Safety, he felt he needed to get rid of all opposition to the new government, through TERROR! He started the Laws of Suspect. Eventually he was arrested, and shot himself in the face while awaiting death by guillotine. He did not kill himself. Instead, they cut out his tongue and cut off his head.
As an officer in the French Army, he defended the National Convention and became a hero. He went on to defeat several armies and increased France's territories. With many food shortages at home, Napoleon was able to get the legislature to resign and the people of France gave the power to him.
To force a person to leave his or her own country and live somewhere else.
A two wheeled wooden cart that was used to transport prisoners to the guillotine.
The growth or expansion of deserts due to human activity.
An area receiving 10 to 12 inches of annual precipitation each year, and supporting only short grasses.
To adjust or change.
Moisture in the form of rain, snow, hail or sleet.
Heavy rain that comes down very fast, but is absorbed too quickly for plants to absorb it and animals to store it.
Lived in the Outback for over 40,000 years. Learned how to survive in the harsh, dry climate.
The interior of Australia, which is mostly desert.
Type of mammal that carries its young in a pouch that is part of its abdomen.
Editor for the National Geographic Magazine. He had a research camp in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona
Got lost in the desert without enough water and almost died from dehydration. He reminds us to ALWAYS have enough water.
Most famous plant in the Mojave Desert.
dark or black rock that looks like glass and forms when volcanic rock cools.
The environment where a plant or animal normally lives.
Refers to deserts like the Kalahari that have a lot of plants and animals.
A crack in the Earth's outer crust along which, movement takes place.
Live on the Kalahari Desert. They preserve water in ostrich eggs and bury the eggs in the ground along their routes.
Animals will sleep during the day when it is HOT and run around at night when it is cooler.
Dry streambeds that fill up with water only in the rainy season.
Air is so dry that it mostly evaporates before it touches the ground.
Camel Question: What is in a Camel's hump?
The Kangaroo Rat
What animal can go an entire lifetime without drinking one drop of water?
DIAMONDS and OIL.
What kinds of minerals, rocks or riches lie in the Earth?
Someone who does not believe in any divine being (GOD).
A blessing or declaration of how someone will be rewarded.
A relationship in which 2 parties agree to depend on each other
A form of execution where a person is nailed to tied to a cross and hung until they die. It is a very slow, painful death
One of the 12 men whom Jesus chose as his closest followers, friends and associates.
Letters of early Christian leaders that form part of the New Testament and explain important Christian teachings.
Books that tell the story of Jesus and explain his message
The anointed one, an agent of God who comes to set things right for God's people.
Religious belief that there is only one divine being (God).
Brief teaching story designed to make a moral point.
Man who is founder or father of a group
To pursue with hostility, to oppress or harass.
In the bible, a person who is inspired by God.
To miraculously be brought back to life.
To Kill a living creature as an offering to God.
The sacred writings that are believed to be the word of God. Found in the bible.
The first 5 books of the bible- Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. They are also called the Torah or Pentateuch (which means 5 scrolls).
The Christian teaching that God has 3 distinct persons, the Father (GOD), the son (JESUS) and the Holy Spirit.
Arc of the covenant
A special box where Moses put the 10 Commandments
The tent that housed the Arc of the Covenant and the 10 Commandments wherever Moses went
A sacred hymn in honor of God
A place of worship and fellowship in the Jewish community.
The angel Gabriel "announces" to Mary that she was chosen by God to be the mother of his child.
Edict of Milan
A document signed by Emperor Constantine, that declared the Christian Church could legally exist.
Before (Jesus) Christ was born
Latin for Anno Domini, "The Year of our Lord"
The Promise Land is considered to be Jerusalem, the Holy City. Both Jews and Muslims believe they OWN it because of God's covenant with _______
Abraham's covenant with God
This begins the relationship between God and Man on a new level. It also teaches man to trust and that God can do all things.
Story of the burning bush
It was when God talked to Moses.
10 plagues of Egypt
1- The Nile River turns to blood (even water in jugs that was taken from the River.)
2- Frogs, Frogs and More Frogs
3- The sand turns to gnats
4- Flies All Over!
5- All Egyptian Livestock dies
7- Hail comes down
8- Locust eat all of the Egyptian's crops
9- Darkness for 3 Days
10- All first born sons of Egypt Die
1-Have no gods before me
2-Do not make any idol
3-Do not take the name of the lord in vain
4-Remember the Sabboth
5-Honor your father and mother
6- Do not commit murder
7- Do not commit adultery
8-Do not steal
9- Do not lie
10- No not covet or envy
An independent town or city that governs itself an the land around it.
Ancient Greek word that is the "root" word for politics.
Another name for the Anatolian Peninsula, where much of Turkey is located.
Chief god, the Big Daddy
The goddess of love
god of the seas
god of the sun
One man is a dictator who rules all and can do whatever he wants.
A few noble and upper class people rule all.
Wealthy men rule together as a council.
Power is shared by a large number of citizens. Citizens took part in debates, decided government policies and voted off officials.
Passed laws, taxes and voted. All citizens were allowed to participate
To banish or send away
500 people that assisted the assembly by deciding which issues would be discussed.
Had to do with the city-state
Where people could work out their personal differences
up to 500 people would hear court cases.
Elected by the Assembly, these 10 generals directed the army.
Foreign residents who were part of the trade in Athens
Worked very hard. Some could purchase their freedom, but they could never become a citizen.
the art of using language, especially to persuade others
A long poem that tells the story of the adventures of one or more legendary heroes.
From the Greek word that means to exercise naked
Spartan slave. Treated very badly
Ancient greek word that is a synonym for Spartan
Kept to themselves and did not want foreign people in their city.
An agreement where 2 or more agree to stop fighting.
Love of wisdom
Lover of wisdom, a person who uses reason to gain wisdom about life.
Branch of philosophy that studies what it means to live a good and moral life.
people should avoid extremes- No over eating, drinking, etc. Have balance and live moderately.
A government, without a king, they usually have some elected officials.
Representatives of the Plebeian Class
Money or goods that conquered people were forced to give to those who conquered them.
A time when trade and business fall off.
A process that makes money more widely available and therefore less valuable.
Customs and beliefs that people inherit from an earlier time, peopleor culture
Athens: Women did not have any rights. Their husband or male relative made their decisions.
Sparta: Women had more rights than they did in Athens. They could vote.
One of the most famous Greek philosophers
Thought people should NEVER do ANYTHING wrong! He pointed out people's faults and made them mad, they got so mad at him they arrested him and poisoned him.
Studied insects, animals and plants, which led him to believe there is more than one way to explain things.
members of the ruling class or aristocracy of ancient Rome.
Common people or the members of the Roman lower class.
presented as if from an expert or authority
the suppression or prohibition of any parts of books, films, news, etc. that are considered obscene, politically unacceptable, or a threat to security.
the body of all people ordained for religious duties, especially in the Christian Church.
an official representing a country abroad.
The force that pulls objects in the Earth's atmosphere toward the Earth
A government in which a monarch agrees to share power with a parliament and abide by a constitution
A slow, graceful dance that involves much bowing and tow pointing.
someone who believes the worst will happen
The study of human thought about the meaning of life and the natural world.
a contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium, typically with the formation of buboes and sometimes infection of the lungs
a fictitious name, especially one used by an author.
relating to great change
Lived in large homes, dressed in lace and silk and wore white wigs. They danced the minuet.
Peasants, workers, and soldiers who lived in crowded city slums. They worked long hours, didn't own anything. Half of the babies died very young.
Ruled by Divine Right and could do anything he wanted.
middle class people
Not as rich as the rich or poor as the poor, Became the leaders of the enlightenment, Known as Burgers or Bourgeoisie from the French word which means "town dweller".
One of the greatest scientists of all time.
The force that pulls objects in the Earth's atmosphere toward the Earth
A great French thinker who would become known as the father of modern philosophy.
Philosopher who lived to be 91 when most people died at 40. His ideas were often so unpopular that he had to run for his life!
Believed that the government should protect the natural rights or liberty of people and if they didn't, it should be thrown out and replaced.
A prison for people who displeased the government.
30 books that summed up the major ideas and discoveries of the Enlightenment Period.
Also known as the age of reason. In Europe between 1600 and 1700 where people believed the darkness and ignorance of the past was giving way to the light of knowledge.
A new class emerges. The people were known as Burgers or Bourgeoisie from the French word which means "town dweller".
What did the apple falling from the tree lead Newton to discover?
Not everything ______ did was a good idea. Once, he stared at the sun for so long he almost blinded himself
The Principals of Mathematics.
Newton was very shy and afraid of being criticized for his work. It took him over 20 years to publish this book.
A great French thinker who would become known as the father of modern philosophy. Spent early life in boarding school. Slept late. Sat around thinking. His book which explains that the only thing we can be sure of is our thoughts and therefore our own existence. "I think, therefore I am" was his famous quote.In the end, he became famous and at the age of 53 was asked by the young Queen of Sweden to come to her castle. He didn't want to go because it would be a long, cold journey and he would not be able to sleep late. But he went. Then, he caught a cold, which turned into pneumonia and he died!
Philosopher who lived to be 91 when most people died at 40. His ideas were often so unpopular that he had to run for his life! After college, he became a tutor and traveled around Europe. He even met Rene Descartes! His most famous book was published when he was in France. He said the government should be powerful like a leviathan (a sea monster who rules the sea)
Believed that the government should protect the natural rights or liberty of people and if they didn't, it should be thrown out and replaced.Essay Concerning Human Understanding was his book about the way people think and learn. believed all people were born with these and they were life, liberty and property. Thomas Jefferson said life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
He was a noble man with money and power who was a great thinker and writer. He wrote in secret in Holland.
He was put in the Bastille for writing verse that made fun of the French government.
The Father of our Constitution- wrote it with a LOT of ideas he learned from John Locke and other Enlightenment men.
An immigrant from Scotland, who rose from the very poor to become one of the richest men in the USA. His first job was to replace spools of thread with empty ones in a factory. Eventually he was hired as a telegraph operator for a railroad. He made a lot of money and he saved and invested it instead of spending it. By the time he was 30 years old, he made more than $50,000 per year. (That's more than $500,000 dollars today.)
Then he started his own business and became a multimillionaire. (In old time money! ☺)
A machine that uses code to send messages by wires over long distances.
The production of goods by machine in large factories rather than by hand.
A person who buys and sells goods to make money.
Cloth or fabric made by weaving threads together.
extending across continent
Leader of the Railroad business who made a fortune in shipping and combined small, separate lines into larger networks.
A group of people who have joined together to operate as one "legal unit" for business purposes.
Prohibits anyone else from using, making or selling the invention of another person without the inventor's permission. Offices are located in D.C.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone and registered it with the patent office in 1876.
John D. Rockefeller
Man who ended up becoming very rich. Rockefeller was in the oil business which was losing money because of accidents of the oil exploding. Rockefeller decided to make and advertise a safe oil, and owned 90% of the oil business by around age 30.
an organization of companies formed with the intention of controlling an industry.
A payment given back to a person or company that purchases a good or service.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Government agency that was supposed to enforce the rules of the Interstate Commerce Act. Was not able to do a good job.
Interstate Commerce Act
Outlawed pools and rebates and made it illegal to charge more for carrying goods short distances.
An organization of workers that helps protect jobs and get better wages and working conditions.
When an employer fires you and sends your name to other businesses, telling them you are a trouble maker and they should not hire you.
A person who wants to do away with all governments.
Immigrated from England with his family and worked in a cigar factory that went on strike. He was blacklisted from other factories.
American Federation of Labor
Unions came together to support one another by boycotting their products.
A crowded apartment building, usually old, crowded and full of poor people with no running water.
A person who pays cash in exchange for a bed and meals.
An organized group within a political party that is strong enough to control the party.
The head of the political machine.
A place where people work for low pay and in uncomfortable conditions.
having complete control of an industry by a single company.
A machine used to play sound recordings.
Great inventor. Not well educated (left school when a teacher told him he was dumb)
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