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Geosci 040: Quiz 2

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Aquaculture is one potential solution to over fishing, but there are problems that need to be addressed, such as overcrowding and disease
True
Phytoplankton that form the basis of the food chain in the ocean:
A) are swimming animals
B) need sunlight and nutrients to flourish (ANSWER)
C) thrive in the deep ocean
D) generally reproduce slowly during periods of red tide
E) none of the above
Which of the following is true about spawning
A) Catadromous fishes use gills for gas exchange, whereas anadromous fishes do not.
B) Anadromous fishes spawn where they normally live.
C) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn. (ANSWER)
D) Catadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn.
Fish maneuverability and swimming speed depends primarily on size and to a lesser extent on body shape and turbulent drag
False
Which of the following concerning phytoplankton is/are correct?
A) Productivity in Polar areas varies significantly during the year
B) Productivity in Tropical areas does not vary significantly during the year
C) Productivity in Temperate areas is the same year round
D) Productivity in North Polar regions is highest in the summer and lower in winter
E) all but C (ANSWER)
The Cod fishing industry is doing very well, because Cod is plentiful and has never been over fished
False
Red tides occur when there are massive quantities of ______ in the ocean
A) Diatoms
B) coccolithophorids
C) salmon
D) dinoflagellates (ANSWER)
There are very few commercial fisheries that are in danger of collapse from over fishing
False
Fishes:
A) are typically cold-blooded vertebrates with scales, gills and fins
B) in some cases do not have scales or fins
C) are vertebrates and typically have a streamlined body shape for easy/fast swimming.
D) all of the above (ANSWER)
Corals:
A) photosynthesize carbohydrates
B) consume C02 and large fishes
C) consume phytoplankton and other simple photosynthetic organisms
D) proliferate in the deep ocean ??????
Hypoxia is caused by:
A) eutrophication
B) stable stratification of the water column
C) lack of oxygen in bottom waters
D) over sedimentation, which kills plants
E) all of the above (ANSWER)
In the World ocean, large fish are present in the same numbers today as they were 50 years ago.
False
For bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay, dissolved oxygen is:
A) lowest in the winter, because thermal stratification is greatest in winter
B) lowest in the winter, because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
C) lowest in the summer, because thermal stratification is greatest in summer (ANSWER)
D) highest in the summer, because nutrient input and plant growth are largest in summer
Modern coral reefs appear to be limited to regions where the:
A) salinity is between 10 and 25 o/oo
B) concentration of particulates is high
C) mean annual temperature is >20°C (ANSWER)
D) water depth is greater than 100 meters
E) none of the above
Which of the following would help reduce agricultural runoff of nutrients to streams and rivers?
A) developing wetland or riparian buffers along streams
B) increase forested area at the expense of croplands
C) adoption of best practice methods of tilling and fertilizer application
D) all of the above (ANSWER)
Fish with long life spans are not a sustainable fishery resource because of:
A) their small body weight at adulthood
B) their tough musculature
C) their ability to avoid nets and hooks
D) their slow reproductive rates (ANSWER)
E) none of the above
In Chesapeake Bay, which of the following prohibit(s) oxygenation of bottom waters?
A) lack of phytoplankton production at the surface
B) strong upwelling and mixing of bottom waters with surface waters
C) large influxes of cold water to the bay
D) stable stratification of the water column (ANSWER)
E) All of the above
Earth has two tidal bulges because:
A) The Sun's bulge is biggest at noon and the moon's bulge is biggest at night
B) Gravity together with centrifugal forces, caused by rotation of the Earth-moon-sun system, produce two bulges. (ANSWER)
C) One bulge is produced by the full moon and the other is produced by the new moon.
D) (A) and (B)
E) none of the above
Tidal amplitude increases progressively away from amphidromic points
True
The moon generates a tidal bulge that is about twice that generated by the sun:
True
A mesotidal coast with a diurnal tide would have:
A) a low tide every 12 hrs. 25 min. with less than 2 m amplitude
B) a low tide every 24 hrs 50 min. with 2 to 4 m amplitude (ANSWER)
C) a low tide every 12 hrs. 25 min. with greater than 4 m amplitude
D) a low tide every 24 hrs 50 mins. with greater than 4 m amplitude
E) a low tide every 12hrs 25 mins. with 2 to 4 m amplitude
Tides do not vary from summer to winter in a given location because Earth is always the same distance from the sun and moon.
False
Many coasts have semidiurnal tides because
A) Wind action is greatest during daylight hours while the sun is up
B) Diurnal tides occur primarily on the western margin of continents
C) Mixed tides generally have smaller range and thus are often misidentified
D) There are two high-tide bulges on Earth, produced by gravity and centrifugal forces, and Earth spins under both of these bulges during a 24 hour 50 minute period (ANSWER)
E) none of the above
Amphidromic tidal circulation involves
A) a counter-clockwise pattern of flow around the basins of the N. hemisphere.
B) tidal crests that move as waves
C) tidal crests that rotate about the amphidromic point and make one complete cycle every 12 hours and 25 minutes
D) all of the above (ANSWER)
E) none of the above
The tidal range toward the center of an amphidromic system is ____ the range at the edges of the system.
A) smaller than (ANSWER)
B) larger than
C) about the same as
D) of longer duration than
E) none of the above are correct
Centrifugal "forces"
A) result from inertia and rotation. (ANSWER)
B) cause low tides, while gravity causes high tides.
C) are the main cause of deep water ocean waves.
D) cause neap tides but not spring tides.
E) all of the above
The tidal bulges on Earth:
A) Rotate 360° during a day just like everything on Earth's surface
B) Make half a revolution each day, which is why there are two bulges.
C) Rotate from the north pole to the south pole and back every 24 hours.
D) Are always directly over the equator.
E) none of the above (ANSWER)
Tides are a product of
A) gravity and wind.
B) surface water currents driven by wind.
C) Ekman transport and thermal transport.
D) gravitational and centrifugal "forces." (ANSWER)
E) all of the above
Semi-diurnal tides
A) produce a high tide about twice a day with a period of 12 hrs. 25 mins. (ANSWER)
B) produce a low tide once every 2.7 days.
C) produce a high tide about once a day with a period of about 24 hours.
D) are not predicted by the dynamic theory of tides.
E) none of the above
Amphidromic points are:
A) semi-diurnal tides
B) the center of the circus "big top"
C) the focus for cotidal and coring lines (ANSWER)
D) the moment of change from spring to neap tide
E) none of the above
In this figure, the times marked A and B in the upper panel show:
A) Spring tides and Neap Tides, respectively (ANSWER)
B) Neap tides and Spring Tides, respectively.
C) Spring tides only.
D) Neap Tides only.
E) none of the above
Which of the following is a factor in the development of deep-water swells?
A. Ekman Transport
B. Wind Speed
C. Duration of Speed
D. All but Ekman Transport (ANSWER)
E. Fetch
If you were floating on a life raft at sea, the sea passage of deep water water waves would move
A. Up and down (ANSWER)
B. In the direction of the wave, by 1/2 the wavelength per hour
C. to the left and right relative to the wave propagation direction
D. All of the above
The speed or celerity of deep-water waves
A. increases with increasing water depth
B. increases with increasing wave period (ANSWER)
C. decreases with increasing wave height
D. is constant regardless of wavelength
E. none of the above
Ocean waves in deep water have a celerity that:
A. is proportional to 3/4 of the water depth d
B. Increases with increasing L and T, where L is the length and T is the period (ANSWER)
C. decreases with increasing wave height
D. decreases with increasing wind strength and fetch
E. none of the above
Key terms for ocean waves include:
A. Wavelength L, period T, and frequency f
B. water particle motion and wave motion
C. speed and celerity
D. wave height
E. all of the above (ANSWER)
Wave trains travel
A. at the same speed as individual waves in the group
B. at the speed of a locomotive, hence their name
C. Only in narrow passages
D. at twice the speed of individual waves in the group
E. at half the speed of individual waves in the group (ANSWER)
Shallow water waves interact with the bottom interact with the bottom and therefore particle motions near the base...
True
Tsunami are
A. Shallow-water waves, caused by the vertical motion of the seafloor (ANSWER)
B. Deep water waves
C. caused by the Coriolis effect
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
The motion of water particles beneath ocean waves in deep water vanishes at distance...
A. the wave height H
B. 1/2 the wave length L (ANSWER)
C. 100 meters
D. 50 meters
E. none of the above
Deep-water swells tend to sort themselves out during travel. The first waves to arrive are:
A. very small wave height
B. the slowest velocity
C. the longest wavelength (ANSWER)
D. the shortest period
E. none of the above
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