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Powerpoint 1, Test 4--Articulation
Terms in this set (22)
How do you determine if there is a need for intervention? (Questions to ask)
1. Is there a problem with phonological development?
2. What is the nature of the problem?
3. Should child be seen for intervention?
4. What is the plan of action?
What are three factors considered when determining need?
3. Developmental Appropriateness
-Individual Speech Sounds
-Phonological Error Patterns
What is the most important factor in determining need?
1. Will the child's participation be understood at school?
2. Will the child become frustrated by inability to interact at home?
What affects intelligibility?
1. Perceptual judgement of a listener
2. Affected by number of speech sounds w/errors
3. Type of errors
-Deletions affect intel. more than substitutions.
-Consistent errors decrease intel.
4.Frequency of the error sounds
-More frequent decrease intel. more.
What are the allowable intelligibility percentages for speech errors?
/n s t l k d r z/ (8% to 4%) (alveolars)
/p m g b f j S v w j h/ (3% to 1%)
/tS ɵðʒ/ (0.5% to 0.1%)
How do you determine the perceptual judgement of a listener? (2 Types)
1. Percentage of words recognized:
-Open Set (language sample)
-Closed Set (repeat a word list)
2. Rating Scales (Not very reliable)
What are Gordon Brannon's percentages for appropriate words understood? (1994)
-5 year olds: 95%
-4 year olds: 85%
-3 year olds: 75%
-2 year olds: 50%
How do you determine severity of impairment?
1. Degree of impairment.
-Mild, Moderate, Severe
-Not consistent enough
3. Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC)
Percentage Consonants Correct Rules (Intelligibility)
1. Post vocalic /r/ is a consonant (car tear tour) but not (burr, father)
2. Score first two productions of a word if word is repeated
3. Score only if word is intelligible (examiner can say what the word was so can say what the consonants should have been)
4. Questionable productions are incorrect
5. Dialectical variants should be glossed and judged as intended (see Stockman, below)
6. Casual speech should be glossed as produced not full forms
--gʌnə if gonna 2/2 C correct = 100%
if going to 1/3 C correct = 33%
Intelligibility and African American English
1. Between 5;11-6;11, would over identify 50% of users... So adjust by:
-Teacher judgment of AAE use by child
-Local determination of appropriate productions of the words from your tests
2. Stockman (1996) Minimal Competency Core
Score phonemes that are common to AAE and MAE
/m n p b t d k g f s h w j l r/
PCC Rules for AAE (Severity)
1. Deletion of Consonants
-Except [h] or [ŋ] in an unstressed syllable
2. Substitutions, including [ʔ]
4. Addition of a sound
-< 50 Severe
*Danny 25% Severe
MLU Comparison (Intelligibility)
-SLI children mean 2.37 -1s.d. 2.05 -2 sd 1.73
-T.D. children mean 2.91 -1s.d. 2.33 -2 sd 1.75
Phonological Processes Present between 2-3 years
1. Unstressed Syllable Deletion
2. Final Consonant Deletion
4. Velar fronting
5. Prevocalic Voicing
Leads to early 8
/p b d m n w j h/
What is the Early Steps program?
It serves Children with delays in cognitive, motor, vision, hearing, communication, social-emotional or adaptive development.
What does Early Steps provide?
Health Services (family education, assistance with other EarlySteps services only)
Medical Services (evaluation only)
Occupational Therapy Services
Physical Therapy Services
Social Work Services
Speech Language Pathology
Transportation (to and from an EarlySteps service only)
Translation Interpreter Services (foreign language and sign language)
What is the mission of Early Steps?
To design and oversee the implementation of a family-centered, community-based, comprehensive, interagency service delivery system for infants and toddlers (birth through two) who are eligible for Part C services, and their families. This system will be monitored and evaluated to ensure that families are supported, and that the potential of each child is maximized.
What are the goals of Early Steps?
-To reduce educational costs to society
- By enhancing development of infants and toddlers with
-By minimizing potential for developmental delay
-By intervening before 3 years when brain development is rapid
Who is eligible for Early Steps?
Children under the age of three who have a developmental delay of at least 1.5 standard deviations (SD) below the mean on the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-2) in one of the following developmental areas or specified sub-domains are eligible for EarlySteps:
a. cognitive development
b. physical development
1. fine motor
2. gross motor
c. communication development
1. receptive language
2. expressive language
What is the BDI-2 Evaluation Report?
The evaluation/evaluation provider must submit this report to the IC within 10 days of the receipt of the Authorization. This report should be a synthesis of the
autism screening when appropriate, and
observation of the child in regular routines.
mastered and emerging milestones,
recommendations for areas of intervention
What is one example of a
l i n m u s u k d o v o v __/13
p o k bi f d e p o s w a v __/14
k o s k o b f i z o t j a d __/14
s u g f u j j a v i m h a k __/14
Total correct letter sounds (CLS): _____
Total words recoded completely and correctly (WRC): _____
Initial Sound Fluency
This is mouse, flowers, pillow, letter (point_to_pictures)._
1. Which picture begins with /fl/? 0 1
2. Which picture begins with /m/? 0 1
3. Which picture begins with /p/? 0 1
4. What sound does "letter" begin with? 0 1
60 x Total Correct
Seconds = ________ Correct_Initial_Sounds_per_Minu
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