When humans went from being hunter gatherers to settling in one place and farming
Definition of Domestication
Growing a plant or raising an animal, and thereby consciously or unconsciously causing it to change genetically from its wild ancestor, in ways making it more useful to humans.
Self reinforcing cycle - directional selection we have more food, then we have more people, then we need more food
Used for hunting, companionship, protecting, herding, pest-control, sledding. May have been the first step to settled living as they acted as sentries for settled people, protecting them and their property
Oldest fossil dates to 12,000 BCE. They may have disrupted the hunter-gatherer's taboo against private property.
The unusual ability to digest milk in adulthood. The best example of different groups of humans in different areas evolving in the same way in recent times in response to change created by human culture
Earliest evidence of domestication are bones with bit wear in Ukraine and Kazakhstan from 4000 BCE. Domesticated for military use.
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
When pollen is transferred from an anther on one plant to the stigma on another. This method may produce a variety of hybrids
Specialization of Labor
To train or specialize people in certain areas of work so that people can accomplish tasks more quickly
Five factors that encouraged the switch from hunting and gathering to settled living
1) Decline in the availability of wild foods. 2) Spread of wild cereal grasses in the Fertile Crescent. 3) Development of technologies upon which food production depends. 4) A rise in food production/a rise in human population. 5) Food producers displaced or killed hunter-gatherers.
Negative results of settled living
1) Specialization of labor led to social classes and war. 2) Accumulation of wealth and possessions = greed and theft. 3) Higher population density increases risk of disease. 4) Health benefits of hunter-gatherers are lost. 5) Farming was difficult work. 6) End of the Egalitarian way of human equality.
Two ways food production spread
1) Ideas and domesticated seeds spread through trade. 2) Foreign traders brought food production and killed local Hunter-gatherers
Requirements to domesticate an animal
1) Herbivore. 2) Grow to full size quickly. 3) Mate in captivity. 4) Have nice disposition. 5) Must not panic and be prone to flight. 6) Have dominance hierarchies.
Reasons Catal Huyuk Fell
Deforestation, overhunting, over cultivating, river changed course, accidental fires destroyed city's wealth
1) Indigestible. 2) Poisonous. 3) Tedious to prepare. 4) Dangerous to hunt. 5) Low in nutrition.