1. Democratic Party's nomination in 1912 and lead America through WWII
2. how the various committees, subcommittees, select committees, and conference committees result in a distribution of power
3. Our government is one by the Chairman of the Standing Committees of Congress
4. Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, Congress in its committee-rooms is Congress at work
5. The Speaker of the House stands near to leadership, but his will is not the only power in legislation; he appoints the leaders of the House, but he is not himself its leader
6. Leaders of the House = chairmen of the Standing Committees
7. Each committee is guided by a special leader and goes its own way as its own pace.
8. Newly elected members experiences difficulty in having his voice and opinions heard; without title
9. New members represent a particular line of policy; finds opportunity and means denied him
10. His only safe day is Monday when members may introduce bills as their states are reached in the call of which there is active competition
11. For even a long congressional session is too short to afford the time to a full consideration of all the reports of the forty-seven Committees
12. The only specially privileged committees: Printing and Elections, Ways and Means, and Appropriations
13. Congress only attends subjects of revenue and supply, all other committees are given to the standing committees.
14. Standing Committees dictate the course to e taken, prescribing the decisions of the House not only, but measuring out, the opportunities for debate and deliberation
1. President wield considerably more power when making decisions in the area of foreign policy than in domestic policy = two presidencies
2. Because of the greater need and speed, Presidents have been easier able to exercise power in foreign policy than domestic (Since WWII)
3. Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, and Kenney faced great difficulties with domestic legislation
4. The Marshall plan, NATO, Truman Doctrine, Indochina, Vietnam, Poland, and Yugoslavia relations were successful areas of foreign policy
5. Small causes have potentially great effects so Presidents must be interested in "small" matters (Cuban Missile Crisis)
6. Vietnam situation illustrates another problem of public opinion: it is difficult to get operational policy directions from the general public
7. Congressmen exercise power in foreign affairs, but they do not think it their job to determine the nation's defense policies
8. Military's participation in making defense policy is weak (since WWII); Stalin and modern technology helped increase the defense budget
9. Giant industrial firms that are so dependent on defense contracts play a large part in making policy
10. State Department: Kennedy dealt with every aspect of policy and did not want a man who might rival him in foreign affairs
11. Controlling foreign affairs is achieved by anticipating the reactions of others and eliminating proposals that would run into severe opposition
12. Presidents engaged in world politics are immensely more concerned with meeting problems on their own terms.
1. the Supreme Court had the power of judicial review, which is the power to declare actions of the president, Congress, or other agencies to be invalid or unconstitutional
2. the U.S. Supreme Court first declared an act of Congress unconstitutional
3. Marbury did not receive his position before Jefferson became president. Once in office, Jefferson directed his secretary of state, James Madison, to withhold the commission, and Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus to compel Madison to act.
4.(1)Did Marbury have the right to the commission? (2) If he did, and his right had been violated, did the law provide him with a remedy? (3) If it did, would the proper remedy be a writ of mandamus from the Supreme Court?
5. "having this legal title to the office, [Marbury] has a consequent right to the commission, a refusal to deliver which is a plain violation of that right, for which the laws of his country afford him a remedy."
1. The doctrinal question is not whether there should be an economic safety net, but how large it should be; not whether there should be government regulation of business, but how much of it.
2. Deregulations: the lifting of restrictions which government rules have been established
3. Deregulation began with Jimmy Carter: Republicans - supported it because they were hostile toward government interference. Democrats - supported it because greater market competition could reduce consumer prices
4. Milton Friedman is the conservative economist leading proponent of deregulation
5. The center of his work is to defend a free market - as a system of economic freedom fro a necessary condition for political freedom
6. The organismic "what you can do for your country" implies that the government is the master, the citizen, the servant or the votary. To the free man, the government is a means, an instrumentality, neither a grantor of favors and gifts nor a master or god to be blindly worshipped and served.
7. The government must be limited. Its major function must be to protect our freedom both from the enemies outside our gates and from our fellow-citizens; to preserve law and order, to enforce private contracts, to foster competitive markets.
8. The government must be dispersed; If I do not like what my state does, I can move to another.
9. The power to do good is also the power to do harm
10. Liberalism has come to have a very different meaning than it did in the 19th century. 18th-19th century: freedom was the ultimate goal and the individual the ultimate entity in the society. Late 19th century: came to be associated with a very different emphasis...the catchwords became welfare and equality rather than freedom. 20th century: favors a revival of the very policies of state intervention and paternalism against which classical liberalism fought.
11. The 19th-century liberal favored political decentralization; the 20th-century liberal favors centralized government
1. The public sector employees who deliver goods and services are in many cases the true policy makers
2. Public service workers actually constitute the services "delivered" by government
3. Most citizens encounter government, through their teachers and their children's teachers and through the policemen on the corner or in the patrol car.
3. Street-level bureaucrats interact and communicate with the general public, either in person, over the phone, in jurisdiction, or through technology.
4. Street-level bureaucrats (teachers, judges, lawyers, social workers, ect...) interact directly with citizens in the course of their jobs and use substantial discretion in the execution of their work
5. From 1955 to 1975 government employment more than doubled, largely because of the baby boom of the postwar years
6. More poor =stronger bureaucrat influence 7. SLB make decisions about people that affect their life chances; thus continues the social process that we infer accounts for so many self-fulfilling prophecies. Children thought by their teacher to be richly endowed in learning ability to learn more than peers of equal intelligence who were not thought to be superior
8. Teachers convey and enforce expectations of proper attitudes toward schooling, policemen do so through public behavior and authority, and social workers do so through public benefits and the status of recipients.