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Social Studies SG
Terms in this set (33)
What is the Niger?
The Niger is one of the largest rivers in West Africa. It provided a source of water for crops and was a means of travel for the ancient Africans.
What is the Sahara?
The Sahara is the world's largest desert that covers most of northern Africa.
What is labor specialization and how did it come about in ancient Africa?
Labor specialization is the division of jobs and skills in a society. It came about in Africa when food supplies grew, and not everyone had to grow food. Some could become experts in things like government or crafts.
What do we call the symbols that we use for numbers today (0, 1, 2, 3....9) and
We call the symbols we use today Arabic numerals because they were introduced to Europe from the Arab (or Muslim) world.
Which group of people held the Sunnah (the words and actions of Muhammad) in
The Sunnis are the group of people who held the Sunnah in high regard. Most Muslims today (at least 85%) are Sunnis.
Muhammad was the first Muslim leader. After he died, what were the rulers of a
Muslim community called?
Muslim rulers called caliphs led the Muslim community.
What was the main idea in Rome's system of government and what does it
The main idea in Rome's system of government was the separation of powers. This means that power was shared among different people with set roles.
In the Roman Republic, which people were considered citizens and therefore
could have a direct role (be active) in government?
Only free adult males were citizens and could be active in government. Women and slaves were not citizens and had no direct role in government.
As the Roman Empire grew, which group of people moved to the city in search of work?
Since landowners bought slaves to do farm work that used to be done by poor Romans, the poor Romans came to the cities in search of work.
What structure did the ancient Romans develop in order to hold public displays
of entertainment on a massive scale?
The Romans invented the round amphitheater.
While there were many differences between wealthy and poor Romans, what
was one thing that they had in common?
Since Rome had an established religion (an official religion supported by the government), both wealthy and poor Romans worshipped Roman Gods.
The reign of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, began a long period of peace
and prosperity, which was known as what?
This period of peace and prosperity was known as the Pax Romana or the "Roman Peace."
Who was Jesus?
Jesus was a Jewish man who lived during the time when the Romans had control of the kingdom of Judea.
Who were Jesus' disciples and what did they do after his death?
The disciples were twelve trusted followers of Jesus who spread his teachings to many parts of the world after his death.
How did each Greek community begin to organize itself?
Each Greek community began to organize itself into a polis (also called a city-state). The polis, or city-state, became the basic unit of ancient Greek government.
Which geographical landform of Greece encouraged a spirit of independence?
What did the discipline and training of Spartan life create?
The discipline and training of Spartan life created a powerful army. They placed emphasis on military life.
What did the people of Athens value?
The Athenians valued individual expression and new ideas.
What effect did colonization have on a city-state's merchants?
Merchants experienced the greatest change from colonization because they grew rich from the increased trade and therefore played a greater role in society.
What was the Renaissance and what does the word mean?
The Renaissance was a great cultural revival that swept through Europe from the 1300s through the 1500s. Renaissance is French for "rebirth."
What country is the birthplace of the Renaissance?
Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance.
Which invention in 1450 made the publishing of books less expensive and
The German printer, Johann Gutenberg, invented the printing press, which enabled books to be printed inexpensively and in greater quantities. More people were able to learn to read and literacy rates increased.
What is heresy?
A heresy is a belief that is rejected by official Church teaching.
In the 1200s, what did Pope Gregory IX create and what did it mean?
Pope Gregory IX created the Inquisition, a series of investigations designed to find and judge heretics.
Why did foreign students flock to the city of Cordoba in Muslim Spain?
In the 800s and 900s, science and medicine were far more advanced in Muslim Spain than in the rest of Europe. Students came there to study philosophy, music, and medicine.
What does excommunicate mean?
To excommunicate means to exclude a person from a church or a religious community.
What is an important legal practice to come out of English common law and what
benefit does it provide?
An important legal practice to come out of English common law is known as habeas corpus. It refers to a court order to bring an arrested person before a judge or court. A jailer must either release the prisoner or present a good reason for keeping that person in jail. This prevents imprisonment without trial.
What was the Magna Carta and how did it change the relationship between the people and their king?
● By 1215, England's leaders had had enough of King John's high taxes and military failures. They forced him to sign a document that promised them certain rights. This document came to be known as the Magna Carta.
● The Magna Carta changed the relationship between the people and the king because it made it clear that even a king must obey the law. It also gave the people the right to a trial by jury and the right to have a voice in their laws and taxation.
What were three lasting effects that the Crusades had on Europe?
- The Crusades encouraged exploration and discovery as Europeans sought to find out more about the world.
- The Crusades brought wealth and trade to European port cities such as the Italian cities of Venice and Genoa.
- Trade increased because more trade routes were established and other routes were reopened. European crusaders returned home with silks and spices.
- Europeans benefited from the scientific and medical knowledge of the Muslims, which was more advanced than their own.
- Europeans also discovered the ancient wisdom of the Greeks and Romans that had been preserved by the Muslims. This knowledge would one day help them make great advances in the sciences and the arts.
How was education important to the growth of democracy in Athens? Why were
most educational opportunities available only to boys?
● Education helped promote growth of democracy in Athens by producing well-rounded citizens who could take part in public life.
● Most education was reserved for boys because only free adult male citizens were allowed to participate in government; females were not citizens and could not hold public office or vote.
Explain how geography encouraged the type of government that developed in Ancient Greece.
● Greece is divided by mountain ranges, which isolated each city-state. This isolation lead to a fiercely independent spirit among the city-states.
● The city-states never attempted to unite under a single government. In fact, they were often at war with one another.
Explain what a veto is and how it worked in the Roman government.
- A veto means to stop or cancel the action of a government official or body. In Latin, veto means "I forbid."
- The Romans elected two leaders called consuls. Each held equal powers and could veto the action of the other.
Explain why the Israelites considered Canaan to be the Promised Land.
● According to the Torah, God told Abraham to leave Ur and travel with his family to a land called Canaan. The Torah says that God made a covenant with Abraham that the land would belong to his descendants.
● Because of this covenant, Israelites believe this land was promised to them and call it the "Promised Land."
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