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PC 705 Module 1 Stress
Terms in this set (25)
Allostasis - ability to successfully adjust to challenges
Homeostasis - stable or remaining the same
Stress is ...
Stress is transactional or interactional - it is not necessarily the event but how we perceive and react to the event that produces stress.
A person experiences stress when a demand (real or imagined) exceeds a person's coping abilities.
General Adaptation Syndrome 3 stages
Alarm stage --- Arousal of body defenses.
Stage of resistance or adaptation --- Mobilization contributes to fight or flight.
Stage of exhaustion --- Progressive breakdown of compensatory mechanisms.
Stressor triggers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
Activates sympathetic nervous system, epinephrine, norepinephrine (from adrenal medulla).
Thus, vital signs increases / pupil's dilate / goose bumps
This is fight or flight feeling.
Stage of Resistance or Adaptation
Begins with the actions of adrenal corticoid hormones particularly --- Cortisol; aldosterone;
These help fuel the body for fight or flight.
Stage of exhaustion
Occurs only if stress continues and adaptation is not successful
Onset of disease due to loss of resistance to stressor; possible death of the person
The hypothalamus senses ...
The hypothalamus senses a stressful stimulus in the external or internal environment --> it then secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone ---> which causes the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla to secrete the catecholamines epinephrine and nor-epinephrine.
This is the fight or flight response.
The hypothalamus also senses ...
The hypothalamus senses a stressful stimulus in the external or internal environment --> it then secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone ---> which causes the anterior pituitary to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone ---> which then makes the adrenal cortex secrete the Glucocorticoids' cortisol and aldosterone.
These two help feed the fight or flight response.
Stress is not purely physiologic ... psychological mediators can also affect plasma cortisol levels just the same as pain or other physical harms can.
A psychologic stressors can elicit a reactive response or a physiologic response to a stress.
For example, taking a test causes your mouth to get dry.
When you are anticipating a disruption in homeostasis.
For example, the report of a tornado in area or something good, prom...!
Conditional responses are associated with a stimuli of danger.
For example, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Anything that demands a response in order to maintain homeostasis
They may be:
Noxious --- Pain, cold, trauma, hunger, electric shock
Not noxious --- Life events (wedding); excitement
Stress and Disease
Stress can precipitate disease
For example, coronary artery disease / infection / cancer.
It can also worsen existing disease such as: Irritable bowel disease / Asthma / Autoimmune diseases / HIV progression.
This is study of interactions of consciousness, the brain and spinal cord, and the body's defense mechanisms.
This study assumes that all immunological diseases are multi-factorial.
Thus, these diseases are the results of interrelationships between physcho-social / endocrine / emotional / genetic / neurological / immune / behavior factors.
Cortisol is a powerful anti-inflammatory / immunize suppressive agent.
It acts to suppress the activity of T-helper 1 cells; this leads to decrease in cellular immunity and to a pro-inflammatory response.
It stimulates T-helper 2 activity; this leads to increase to adaptive humoral immunity and anti-inflammatory response.
A T-helper 1 to T-helper 2 shift will ...
A T-helper 1 to T-helper 2 shift will ...
Decrease in cellular immunity and ...
Increase in humoral immunity
Stress can Induced Hormone Alterations in Female
Female reproductive system:
Cortisol exerts inhibiting effects by suppressing the release of luteinizing hormone (anterior pituitary), estradiol, and progesterone (gonads).
This will change menstrual periods or inhibit reproduction
Stress can Induced Hormone Alterations in Male
Male reproductive system:
Testosterone is secreted by Leydig cells
Regulates male secondary sex characteristics and libido
Testosterone levels decrease due to stressful stimuli
Endorphins and enkephalins
These are proteins found in the brain that have pain-relieving capabilities; they are endogenous opiates.
In a number of conditions, individuals not only experience insensitivity to pain but also increased feelings of excitement, positive well-being, and euphoria
For example, eating chocolates / sex.
Growth hormone (somatotropin)
Produced by anterior pituitary, lymphocytes, and mononuclear phagocytic cells.
Affects protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism and counters the effects of insulin; Enhances immune function.
However, continued stress responses will eventually response in decrease in growth hormone; this explains stunted growth in teens.
Prolactin is released from the anterior pituitary.
It is needed for lactation and breast development.
Prolactin levels in the plasma INCREASES as a result of stressful stimuli.
Possible role in immune function.
Oxytocin is produced by the hypothalamus; stored in posterior pituitary.
Produced during orgasm in both sexes.
May promote reduced anxiety; i.e. labor / let down response.
-Excitability changes in the limbic system and hypothalamus
-Increased catecholamines, ADH, ACTH, and cortisol
-Decreased testosterone, thyroxine, and other hormones
-Alterations of opioid / peptides
-Alterations in lipoproteins
-Hypercoagulation of the blood
-Free radical damage of cells
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PC 705 Module 1 Genetics
PC 705 Module 1 Pain
PC705 Pathophysiology #1
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