World History: Americas Unit Review
Terms in this set (41)
diverse civilizations that shared similar cultural characteristics in the geographic areas comprising the modern-day countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
The first large-scale civilization in North America that emerged between the 700s and 1500s; known for building enormous mounds.
Monumental structures built by the Mississippians; some shaped like animals, or pyramid shaped; may have been used for burial, or ritual practices.
Center of larger Mississippian towns at the center of smaller towns; these would be at the top of a mound and may have had temples made of wood.
The largest Mississippian town located in present-day Illinois; around 1250 had a population of about 40,000; known for trade.
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life; practiced by the Mississippians.
Chief of a large Mississippian town; sat at the head of a very rigidly structured class system.
Mississippian culture where rank/standing depended on the woman's side of the family.
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica; conquered Mayan settlements.
The Toltec form of political organization; wealthy landholders who were also military leaders.
The capital city of the Toltecs, built around 950 CE in northern Mesoamerica. At its peak, 60,000 people lived there.
Toltec deity borrowed from the Maya; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god
Ancient Mayan city similar to Tula that further suggests interaction between the Toltec and Maya.
Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax in their tribute system.
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins; formed around 1325 CE.
The central feature of Tenochtitlan; 150 feet tall.
Lake where the capital city of the ancient Aztecs Tenochtitlan was built
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
Administrative divisions set up by the Aztecs; overseen by Aztec warriors and their families.
The Aztec government was controlled by religious leaders; at the top was the emperor.
The ruler of Tenochtitlan that was considered a living god.
Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Killing of humans for a purpose like worshiping a god, practiced widely by the Aztecs and a little by the Maya
The Aztecs borrowed this from the Maya and used it to mark their religious ceremonies.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
Took control of Incan Empire in 1471 and expanded its control.
Incan system for payment of taxes with labor; differed from the Aztec tribute system.
Language of the Inca
Royal Ancestor Veneration
The practice of mummifying dead rulers so they could continue to rule, new rulers did not inherit their predecessors lands.
People of the sun.
Incan sun god; most important of the Incan gods.
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
Natural places of worship the Inca believed that elements of animism held supernatural powers.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Agricultural techniques of South America; combines raised beds with irrigation channels to prevent erosion.
During Incan rule, this is a massive roadway system made possible by captive labor; stretched 25,000 miles.
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541).
The Incan ruler under whom the Incan empire reached its widest extent (died in 1525); civil war followed making Spanish conquest easier.
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