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42 terms

AP gov courts test set 2

eh
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government charges individual with violating a statute
criminal law
disputes between individuals or between individuals and the government where no criminal violation is alleged; plaintiff often brings suit against a defendant seeking redress, often in monetary damages
civil law
american courts use this in deciding cases, where precedents guide decision making
stare decisis
3 main types of courts
trial courts, courts of appeals, supreme courts
most all of us cases are heard in these type of courts
state courts
what are the 2 types of lower federal courts
district courts and appellate courts
how many district courts are in the 50 states
89
where are additional district courts found besides in the states
dc, puerto rico, 3 US territories
how are appellate courts organized
12 geographical circuits, another for federal circuit.
review decisions of district courts and some fed. agency decisions
appellate courts
what is the supreme court presided over by
chief justice and 8 associate judges
current chief justice
john roberts
courts engage in fact finding and judgement of disputes after the fact
dispute resolution
courts provide clear signals as to how they may rule in a case
before the fact coordination
justices determine scope and content of legislative statutes and the constitution
rule interpretation
what court judges whether or not a president has exceeded his authority
supreme court
when parties have a substantial stake in the outcome of a case
standing
3rd in status in the justice department, screens cases
solicitor general
assigned to justices to screen many cert petitions and play key roles in writing opinions
law clerks
when did the court expand
after WW2
protection of citizens from improper governmental action
civil liberties
claims citizens are entitled to make on governmental protection
civil rights
court case in which supreme court established dual citizenship
barron vs baltimore
says people are citizens of nat gov and state gov separately and bill of rights does not apply to states
dual citizenship
basis of thomas jefferson's wall of separation
establishment clause
court case that determined the constitutionality of government interactions with religion
lemon vs kurtzman
guarantees citizens rights to believe and practice whatever religion
free exercise clause
citizens rights against unreasonable searches and seizures
4th amendment
grand juries play a large role in fed criminal cases
5th amendment
illegally found evidence may not be used in a trial
4th amendment
individuals protected against double jeopardy
5th amendment
allows people to not testify against themselves
5th amendment
protects eminent domain clause
5th amendment
ensures citizens have right to counsel in criminal trials
6th amendment
prohibits excessive bail, excessive fines
8th amendment
prohibits cruel and unusual punishment
8th amendment
court case where supreme court said segregation was legal as long as it was equal
plessy vs ferguson
court case that overturned separate but equal
brown vs board of education
where do civil rights disputes center over now
affirmative action
a type of reverse discrimination
affirmative action
location of supremacy clause in constitution
article 6
requires agencies to notify parties affected by proposed rules and allow them ample time to comment on such rules before they go into effect
1946 administrative procedures act