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History Exam Review
Terms in this set (59)
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union, wanted to create a model of a communist state. He made Agricultural and industrial growth his goal.
Five Year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
referring to a form of government in which one person or party holds absolute control
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non-Aryans
Germanic people seen as the master race
Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents. First 2 acts outlawed the arms sales or loans to nations at war, 3rd ac was in response to Spain's civil war.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
The Wiemar Republic
the republic that was established in Germany in 1919 and ended in 1933
A private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.
Storm Troopers/Brown Shirts
Hitler's private army
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931
the alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)
Gerald Nye Committee
a senator from North Dakota claimed he found evidence of corporations doing corrupt things during WW1, and said bankers had pressured Wilson into participating in it to protect their loans abroad
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
Lowered the towering tariff and lifted the American export trade, aimed at relief and recovery.
emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god
The LoN failed to stop countries from taking over and starting wars.
How did the LoN fail?
Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
Agreement between Germany and Russia not to fight each other
Blitzkrieg (lightning war)
a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces
Charles de Gaulle
Leader of the French government-in-exile
Union of Austria and Germany
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
German Air Force
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
The defensive line in Germany opposite the Maginot that separated and protected Germany from France
sitting war/ phony war
port in France from which 300,000 Allied troops were evacuated when their retreat by land was cut off by the German advance in 1940
Marshal Philippe Petain
when Hitler gained control of northern France, he was in charge of south, hero from WWI who betrayed France by setting up a puppet government. The Vichy government.
the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
Nazi troopers attacked Jewish home, businesses, and Synagogues in Germany Nov. 9-10. 100 Jew were killed and 30,000 Jews were arrested.
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
Sections of towns and cities in which Jews were forced to live.
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Hatred of Jews
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Jews, Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, Homosexuals, Mentally Deficient, Mentally ill, Disables,
Who were "undesirables" in Hitler's eyes?
The first death camp.
largest Nazi death camp
Germany, Italy, Japan, and signed the Tripartite
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
government owned farms
Joint declaration of war aims, GB and U.S. pledged collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas.
The nations that fought the axis powers.
chief of staff of Japan's Kwantung Army, launched the invasion into China
Cash and Carry Policy
United States aid to Great Britain that did not cause U.S. to loose its position of neutrality
Selective Training and Service Act
1940 law requiring all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service
Franklin Roosevelt's Republican opponent in the 1940 Presidential election.
wolf pack attack
German U-boats that were sent out onto the Atlantic Ocean to sink U.S. lend-lease boats that were providing shipments to Britain and the Soviet Union. Prompted FDR to allow shipment boats to use arms in self defense.
Declaration of the United Nations
January 1, 1942, signed by 26 nations that agreed not to make separate peace agreements with the enemy and to uphold the Atlantic Charter,evolved into another in 1945 that became the basis for the successor organization to the League of Nations
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii by Japan on December 7, 1941. The Japanese were hoping to cripple the American fleet, which had been enforcing Embargo, which denied Japan the raw materials it needed to increase their power and this attack failed leading to Japan's defeat.
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