75 terms

Ch 4

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called:
b. assimilation
Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's:
b. ability to reason speedily and abstractly
Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.
a. postconventional
Maturation refers to:
b. biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country's ________ has altered.
a. social clock
Haidt's social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on:
d. moral judgements
Most people's earliest memories do not predate ___ of age.
d. 3 years
Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?
b. male facial hair
Ten-year-old Heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her fifth-grade class. Heidi is likely to be:
d. the object of some teasing.
When psychologists discuss maturation, they are referring to stages of growth that are not influenced by:
c. nurture
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during:
b. early adulthood
Nature is to nurture as __________ is to _________.
d. temperament; responsive parenting
Which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills?
d. crystallized intelligence
During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a (n) ________ and finally develops into a
d. zygote
Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of:
c. continuity or stages.
Infants first demonstrate a preference for their mother's voice over the voices of other women by the time they are ____ old
a. 1 day
The formation of a placenta signals the onset of _______ development.
d. embryonic
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the _________ stage of development
d. formal operational
Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:
b. have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.
According to Piaget, children come to understand that the volume of a substance remains constant despite changes in its shape during the ________ stage.
c. concrete operational
The relative lack of neutral interconnections in the brain at the time of birth most directly contributes to:
a. poor memory for early life experiences.
Babies accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget:
b. underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
Compared to 40 years ago, American men today are marrying at an _______ age and women are marrying at a ____ age.
c. older, older
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?
b. responsive parenting
During which of Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?
a. sensorimotor
Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________.
a. men; women
The body structures that enable reproduction are the:
a. primary sex characteristics
Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their.
b. social relationships
Among employed women, the task of raising children is especially likely to be associated with ________ marital satisfaction. The departure of mature children from the home is typically associated with ________ marital satisfaction.
b. decreasing; increasing
If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a:
d. teratogen.
According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to:
e. identity
Girls typically play in ____ groups than boys do and, during their teens, girls spend ____ time with friends than do boys.
d. smaller;more
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be:
e. authoritative
The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as _______ parents.
a. authoritarian
Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe developed a:
d. theory of mind
One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is:
e. alcohol
Kohlberg emphasized that human behavior becomes less selfish as we mature due to:
c. cognitive development
Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be:
a. underweight.
Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by:
c. investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles.
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to:
d. adjusting current schemas in order to make sense of new experiences.
The russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by:
c. inner speech
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to:
d. secure attachment
A teratogen is a:
d. substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child:
c. assimilates reality differently than an adult's does
Dementia is most commonly associated with:
c. Alzheimer's disease
A critical period is a phase during which:
d. certain events have a particularly strong impact on development.
Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into 8 pieces and Sylvia's into 6 pieces. Sylvia cried b/c she felt she wasn't getting as much got dog as Judy:
b. conservation
After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that:
d. their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce
Compared with Americans 40 years ago, Americans today are likely to:
b. marry for the first time at an older age.
People experience surging physical growth and sexual maturation during:
b. puberty
Despite their poor memories of early life experiences, 14 month olds are still capable of:
a. imitating actions they observed others perform three months earlier
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of _______ development.
c. cognitive
Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with:
b. body contact.
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to:
b. use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
c. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
b. zygote, embryo, fetus
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves:
b. affirmation of self- defined ethical principles
Human sperm cells ________ than egg cells, and sperm cell production begins ______ in life than does the production of egg cells.
d. smaller;later
Compared to "late bloomers" boys who mature sexually at an early age tend to be more:
c. popular and self-assured
A cross-sectional study is one in which:
b. different age groups are tested at the same time.
Habituation refers to the:
b. decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
Authoritarian parents demonstrate ____ levels of parental control and _____ levels of parental responsiveness.
c. high;low
The rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to:
c. open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek
According to Piaget, schemas are:
c. people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ______stage.
c. sensorimotor
According to Erikson, adolescence is to identity as adulthood is to:
a. integrity
When researcher Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants:
a. stared longer at the outcome.
Menopause refers to:
a. the cessation of menstration
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the:
d. adolescent
A belief that adult personality is completely determined in early childhood would be most relevant to the issue of:
b. stability or change.
According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to _______.
e. infancy; adolescence
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include:
b. mental retardation
According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a ________ morality.
c. preconventional
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:
c. the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.
Alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce:
a. dopamine