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Prior to Muhammad's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was
a mixture of animism and polytheism
Which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is not correct?
Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population
Key Arabian town likes Mecca and Medina were largely extensions of the tribal culture of the camel nomads.
the religious practices that are incumbent on all Muslims are referred to as the
five pillars of faith
With of the following statements concerning the resistance of the Byzantine Empire to Islamic attacks is most accurate?
The Byzantine Empire was more resilient than the Sasanian Empire, but still suffered the loss of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine to the Arabs.
The theological and political faction that supported the Umayyad concept of succession within Islam were the
What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire?
Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire
Unlike the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire
admitted the mawali as full members of the Islamic community
The most characteristic political form in the classical Mediterranean world was
Classical Mediterranean society differed from classical China in all of the following ways except
the rejection of religious belief
This Greek philosopher suggested that human reason could approach an understanding of the perfect formsthe absolutely True, Good, and Beautiful that he believed underlay nature.
Pericles was an ordinary citizen who dominated Athenian politics during the fifth century B.C.E.
While Rome expanded the sway of Mediterranean civilization to western Europe, its internal politics were relatively stable.
Both Greece and Rome experimented in the diversity of political forms of governance, which ranged between democracy and tyranny.
Classical Mediterranean civilizations regulated their societies with an elaborate legal framework and not a strong centralized bureaucratic state
Greek architecture is considered as having invented the foundations of "classical architecture"
The rise of commercial agriculture in Greece and then around Rome was one of the prime forces leading to efforts to establish an empire
One characteristic that differentiated classical civilizations from the earlier river-valley societies was
they created larger political structures, capable of controlling more, territory.
A major factor in China's development of the first elaborate classical societies was
its ability to remain isolated and avoid outside invasion
Wu Ti and other Han rulers were able to generate peace throughout the continent of Asia by halting the pattern of Chinese territorial expansion
The Qin Dynasty was marked by all of the following except
an increase in the economic status of the peasant communities
Beside the "mean people", which of the following groups were considered to have the least status in classical China?
The Indian caste system functioned as a political institution by
enforcing rules about social behavior
What was the rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid Dynasty?
There was no accepted rule of succession
How did the Shi'i react to the later Abbasid dynasty?
Shi'i revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty.
What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid?
Candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers
Which of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid Caliphate?
In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam?
the turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire
What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid era?
despite political disintegration and a decline in the agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly
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