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Islam means


Bedouins were

Arab camel nomads

What was the basic social group of the bedouin people?

kin-related clan groups

Shaykhs were

leaders of bedouin clans

What clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca?


The religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce in pre-Islamic Mecca was the


Who ruled Medina prior to Muhammad's flight there?

several Jewish and bedouin clans

Prior to Muhammad's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was

a mixture of animism and polytheism

what was the date of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina?

622 C.E.

Which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is not correct?

Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population

Key Arabian town likes Mecca and Medina were largely extensions of the tribal culture of the camel nomads.


Muhammad was a member of the Umayyad clan of the Quraysh tribe.


The capital of the Umayyad Empire was Baghdad


The muslims generally displayed tolerance toward the religions of dhimmi peoples.


The Islamic umma was

the concept of community of the faithful that transcended clan boundaries

the religious practices that are incumbent on all Muslims are referred to as the

five pillars of faith

The responsibility of all Muslims to make a pilgrimage to Mecca is called the


The Ridda Wars were fought

to suppress rival prophets and to restore the unity of Islam

With of the following statements concerning the resistance of the Byzantine Empire to Islamic attacks is most accurate?

The Byzantine Empire was more resilient than the Sasanian Empire, but still suffered the loss of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine to the Arabs.

The theological and political faction that supported the Umayyad concept of succession within Islam were the


What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire?

Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire

Unlike the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire

admitted the mawali as full members of the Islamic community

If the Greek genius was in politics, the Roman genius was


Greek politics was noted for its formation of

democratic city-states

The Roman Empire

tolerated local politicians and religious diversity.

The Senate of Republican Rome particularly represented

the landed aristocracy

The most characteristic political form in the classical Mediterranean world was

aristocratic assemblies

Classical Mediterranean society differed from classical China in all of the following ways except

the rejection of religious belief

This Greek philosopher suggested that human reason could approach an understanding of the perfect formsthe absolutely True, Good, and Beautiful that he believed underlay nature.


Greek society, compared to Rome's, registered special advances in


Roman slaves were used for all of the following except

military service

Americans have historically shown little interest in classical Mediterranean society.


Pericles was an ordinary citizen who dominated Athenian politics during the fifth century B.C.E.


While Rome expanded the sway of Mediterranean civilization to western Europe, its internal politics were relatively stable.


Both Greece and Rome experimented in the diversity of political forms of governance, which ranged between democracy and tyranny.


Classical Mediterranean civilizations regulated their societies with an elaborate legal framework and not a strong centralized bureaucratic state


The Greeks and Romans were never concerned with crafting a world-class religion


Greek architecture is considered as having invented the foundations of "classical architecture"


The rise of commercial agriculture in Greece and then around Rome was one of the prime forces leading to efforts to establish an empire


Mediterranean society lagged behind both India and China in production of technology


One characteristic that differentiated classical civilizations from the earlier river-valley societies was

they created larger political structures, capable of controlling more, territory.

A major factor in China's development of the first elaborate classical societies was

its ability to remain isolated and avoid outside invasion

The Chinese view of nature stressed

harmony and balance

Wu Ti and other Han rulers were able to generate peace throughout the continent of Asia by halting the pattern of Chinese territorial expansion


A major feature of the claassical Chinese economy was

a high level of technology

The Qin Dynasty was marked by all of the following except

an increase in the economic status of the peasant communities

China's classical period gave rise to all of the following intellectual traditions except


Beside the "mean people", which of the following groups were considered to have the least status in classical China?


Both trade and technology progressed during the classical Chinese period


Under the Zhou Dynasty, China extended its territy to include the "middle Kingdom"


The first ruler of the Maurya Dynasty was


The Maurya Dynasty differed from the Gupta Dynasty in that

it ruled a larger territory

The Indian caste system functioned as a political institution by

enforcing rules about social behavior

Hinduism was defined by all of the following except

an attack on all other religions

Buddhism differed from Hinduism by not believing

in the caste system

Indian trading networks expanded to include all of the following except


What was the rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid Dynasty?

There was no accepted rule of succession

How did the Shi'i react to the later Abbasid dynasty?

Shi'i revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty.

What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid?

Candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers

Which of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid Caliphate?

spiraling taxation

What did the Abbasid creation of the harem imply?

the increasing power of the caliph's wives

what was the religious affiliation of the Seljuks?


In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam?

the turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire

What was Saladin?

the commander responsible for the reconquest of the Crusader territories

What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid era?

despite political disintegration and a decline in the agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly

In what language was the Sha-Mana written?


Which of the following was a literary figure during the Abbasid dynasty

Omar Khayyam

What was the movement within Islam that emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship?


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