BJU Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (93)
The commandment to study and use the earth and its resources for God's glory and man's benefit is called
provides direction for testing, offers initial explanation for testing, might be used to make predictions
benefits of controlled experiment
allows only one factor to vary
occupies space and has mass
constant volume, changes shape
used to find the weight of an object
measures of volume
liters, cubic centimeters, quarts, milliliters
particle found in the nucleus of every atom
most accurately shows the shape of the continents
there would be a wide, hot equatorial belt and very cold polar zones
If the earth's axis were perpendicular to its orbital plane,
the Earth's atmosphere protects us from
study of the earth
thinnest layer of the earth
lack of food, rising seas, dust storms
A creationist's explanation for what caused the extinction of the woolly mammoths includes
causes of earthquakes
eruption of a volcano, landslide, slipping of a fault
Most major faults in the US are found in
seismic waves travel
through the earth and not the core; through the earth including through the core; only on the earth's surface
earthquakes are most common
Along the edges of tectonic plates
On which continent will you find not only the world's highest mountain but also 96 of the 109 tallest peaks in the world?
stone arches are most directly related to
depression found at the top of most volcanic cones
Lava that cools underwater, taking on a distinctive pillow-like shape as it hardens
A layer of loose pyroclastic materials and ash covering the ground
Geologists believe that the earth's interior temperature is highest in the
a scale used to determine the hardness of a mineral
dark mineral that attracts iron fillings
unit of mass
a very light and porous volcanic rock formed when a gas-rich froth of glassy lava solidifies rapidly; often light enough to float in water
are very weather resistant
Igneous rocks like granite and basalt are often used for statues and important buildings because they
The original rock that was altered to form a metamorphic rock
occurs when hydrothermal fluids cause changes to occur in rocks that they are in contact with.
most fossils are
example of microfossil
Fossils that seem to appear reliably in the proper geologic sequence and that are used by geologists to determine the age of rock strata are called
Some forms of coal have been properly classified as
Nearly half of the electrical power plants in the United States use this fuel.
When two or more glaciers merge and spread out onto a plain at the base of a mountain range
contour plowing, windbreaks, strip cropping
method of soil conservation used today
Which ocean basin covers the largest percentage of the earth's surface?
Island arcs are most often associated with
In general, seawater temperature __________ from the surface to the bottom.
Because clams, corals, and anemones are attached to or live on the bottom, we call them _____ organisms.
main chemical building block of all living things
The earth moves under the tidal bulge to form high and low tides.
Which of the following is the best explanation for tides?
providing sufficient air to breathe
The greatest challenge to deep-sea diving is
Nearly every year, a thin spot in the ozone layer develops over
scientific study of the atmosphere
The global winds that drive most weather in the United States are the
Forms of precipitation
rain, snow, sleet, hail
on solid objects, when the water drop lands on them
Where does freezing rain actually freeze?
A front forms, precipitation and storms form
What happens when two air masses meet?
in their source regions
Where do air masses gain their temperature and humidity properties?
weekend forecast during Thursday evening news
What kind of weather forecast would be the most accurate?
astronomical unit (AU)
distance between the earth and the sun
pairs of local magnetic disturbances appear on the sun's surface.
Astronomers believe that sunspots form when
Compared with the earth, the average density of the moon is
During what lunar phase is the left half of the moon lit from the perspective of an observer in North America?
We call the 365 named days from January 1st to December 31st a
When astronomers search the solar system for possible signs of life, they look for
Which planet has the largest known volcano in the solar system?
distinctive features of Saturn
It emits more energy than it absorbs from the sun, has the most prominent ring system of any planet, has the only moon in the solar system with a dense atmosphere.
Mars and Jupiter
The asteroid belt lies between the orbits of
Lines of latitude appear parallel to the Equator when the globe is viewed from the side.
Why are lines of latitude sometimes called parallels?
temperature and amount of precipitation (or rainfall)
Changes in which two factors cause the extreme changes in biomes as you climb to the summit of a tall mountain such as Kilimanjaro?
As geologists study volcanoes, they can better understand their structure, activity, and hazards. That helps us to protect people's lives and possessions.
How can earth science help reduce the risks of natural hazards from volcanoes?
C, B, E, F, D, A
Arrange the terms below in order from land toward the middle of an ocean basin by writing their letters in the correct sequence.
A. abyssal plain D. rise
B. beach E. shelf
C. coastal region F. slope
Wind of any speed will make the air feel cooler.
What effect does wind speed have on a person's perception of the temperature?
Where the air masses meet, the warm air mass is lifted as the colder, denser air moves beneath it, forming a cold front. This usually produces thunderstorms and precipitation.
What happens when a cold air mass displaces a warm air mass?
The moon is much smaller than the earth with a diameter about the width of the United States. It is also less massive (1.2% of the mass of the earth) and less dense than the earth. The moon has a structure similar to that of the earth.
Compare the moon with the earth.
Astronomers classify stars by their temperature and composition (which determines color) and luminosity (which is affected by size and temperature). When plotted on a luminosity versus temperature graph, called the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, most stars fall into major groups. These groups help astronomers predict many properties of these stars.
How do astronomers classify stars? What tool do they use for this purpose?
False - Qualitative data is also valuable.
The only really useful data is measured data.
all forces act in
potential energy can be converted to
According to a secular view of the earth, its solar system, and the universe, our planet and its stars are
False - Three stations are needed to fix the location of the epicenter.
The location of an earthquake epicenter is determined by the strength of the earthquake at seismic stations.
False - Architects have designed buildings that can withstand an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0.
Architects can't design buildings to withstand an earthquake.
Geyser water is heated by
At one time aluminum was more valuable than
Most rocks are a mixture of two or more
sedimentary rocks to form
Old-earth geologists believe that it took millions of years for layers of
any remains or trace of a formerly living thing preserved by natural processes.
False - Fossils are also occasionally found in metamorphic rock and rarely in igneous rocks.
Fossils can be found only in sedimentary rocks.
exercising biblical dominion of the ocean environment.
Minimizing the runoff of artificial fertilizers into the ocean is an important part of
False - While the moon has the greatest effect on the ocean tides, the sun also has an effect.
The moon is the only astronomical body that affects Earth's oceans.
A greater amount of life is found in the earth's oceans than
False - A northeast wind blows from the northeast.
A northeast wind is one that blows toward the northeast.
outer part of the hurricane.
Pressure in the eye of a hurricane is lower than in the
The solar wind is just a continuation of the sun's
False - The front side of the moon can also be in shadow.
The back side and the dark side of the moon are the same.
A total solar eclipse is usually shorter than a total