Provides a wide variety of goods and services, encourages developed skills, and promotes social classes.
Stratification of Society into Classes
Defines a person's place in society and reflects an un-egalitarian distribution of power and wealth.
Makes and enforces law to keep order, standardizes and ensures authenticity of a currency, and collects taxes to support the most vulnerable members of society.
Cooperation beyond the family unit in building civic structures under centralized government management
Often enhance other elements of civilization
Formalizes religious beliefs and offers guidance in questions of life, death, creation, nature and spirit.
System of Writing
Provides a way to keep accurate and official records of taxes, building projects, religious rituals and beliefs, trade transactions, etc.
Allowed cultivation of land farther from the soft muck of the riverside. Copper plow dates to 3000s BCE. Bronze plow dates to 3000 BCE.
Emerged because food had to be transported, stored and redistributed, and therefore this caused urbanization
A large Sumerian city state, the first city state in 2500 BCE, that is the supposed home of Gilgamesh
Sumerian system of writing made up of wedge-shaped markings, first clay tablets date to 3300 BCE from Uruk
Land of No Return
The afterlife of the Sumerian religion
Sumerian temples made of sun-dried brick
The most wealthy, powerful class who interpreted the wishes of the gods through omens, such as the shape of the liver of a sacrificial animal. Priests often took advantage of their power and used gifts for the gods for themselves.
The king of Ur who produced the first recorded law code in 2100 BCE, which showed monetary compensation for harm done and protection of the weak and vulnerable.
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
A harsh code with eye-for-eye justice, and cruelty towards women.
Goddess of fate
God of war
God or irrigation
God of wisdom and providence
Record keeper of the gods
Judges of the underworld
Goddess of the underworld
Supreme king of the gods and source of all order and government
Storm god who supported royal authority
Goddess of wine
A legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
Akkadian king who built history's first empire by conquering all the Sumerian cities
Caused by over cultivation due to increasing population, salt level rose into the soil, which made crop yield decline (especially wheat). Water became polluted.
Independent Sumerian city states were susceptible to external conquest
A river in southwestern Asia that flows into the Persian Gulf; was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia
A river in southwestern Asia that flows through the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent
A city of ancient Sumer in southern Mesopotamia on a site in present-day southeast Iraq. One of the oldest cities in Mesopotamia, it was an important center of Sumerian culture after c. 3000 B.C. and the birthplace of Abraham.
Deciphered the Behistun Inscription
a cliff that has Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian inscribed it in Persia.
Legendary friend of Gilgamesh, in the Epic of Gilgamesh
The representation a god as having human form or traits
An attempt by a pre-scientific society to make sense of the universe.
A society in an advanced state of social development with complex legal and political and religious organizations (with all seven elements of civilization)
The number system of the sumerians
A city and its surrounding lands that act as a government