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ceremony in which the President officially takes the oath of office


an act or decision that sets the example for others to follow.


group of officials who head government departments and advise the President

Judiciary Act

1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district and circuit courts

national debt

total amount that a government owes to others


certificate that promises to repay money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date


one who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit

Bank of the United States

bank set up in 1791 - holds government deposits, issues paper $, pays government bills, makes loans to farmers and businesses


tax on foreign goods brought in to a country

Whiskey Rebellion

1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the U.S.

French Revolution

1789 rebellion that ended the French monarchy for a time.

foreign policy

actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations


not taking sides in a conflict

Neutrality Proclamation

1793 statement by President that the U.S. would not support either Britain or France in their conflict

Jay's Treaty

1795 agreement between Britain and U.S. over forts, ships and debts owed to British merchants

Farewell Address

final official speech of Presidents as they leave office


opposing group within a party


not allowed under the Constitution

Democratic Republican

Supporters of Thomas Jefferson; those who favored a decentralized government


those who wanted a strong national government

XYZ Affair

1797 French attempt to bribe the U.S. over negotiations for seized ships.


fast sailing gun ship

Alien and Sedition acts

1798 laws that allowed foreigners to be expelled, made it harder for them to become citizens and made it possible to jail or fine citizens who criticize the government


stirring up rebellion against a government


to cancel

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions

declarations that claimed each state had a right to decide if federal laws are constitutional and to nullify them within the state

states' rights

the right of states to limit the power of the federal government

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