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Rhetorical devices examples, Fallacy Examples, AP English Quiz - Argumentation
Terms in this set (57)
"She sells seashells by the sea-shore."
"You're acting like such a Scrooge!"
"Finding a good man is like finding a needle in a haystack."
A woman drew her long black hair out tight
And fiddled whisper music on those strings
And bats with baby faces in the violet light
Whistled, and beat their wings
And crawled head downward down a blackened wall
And upside down in air were towers
Tolling reminiscent bells, that kept the hours
And voices singing out of empty cisterns and exhausted wells. - "The Waste Land," T. S. Eliot
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times."
"Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came."
"An empty stream, a great silence, an impenetrable forest. The air was thick, warm, heavy, sluggish."
"The old man passed away."
"Her brain is the size of a pea."
"The blind leading the blind."
"Easy come, easy go."
"Lightning danced across the sky."
"And Joshua, and all of Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had."
The boy was a good footballer, because his father was a footballer, and his grandfather was a footballer.
"Books are the mirrors of the soul."
― Virginia Woolf, Between the Acts
"A lot of people never use their initiative because no-one told them to."
― Banksy, Wall and Piece
"An empty head is not really empty; it is stuffed with rubbish. Hence the difficulty of forcing anything into an empty head."
"If practice makes perfect, and no one's perfect, then why practice?"
"A room without books is like a body without a soul."
― Marcus Tullius Cicero
You just hit the biggest lottery of all time! An understatement would be: "I'm kind of excited."
After Will said that we should put more money into health and education, Warren responded by saying he was surprised that Will hated the country so much that he wants to leave it defenseless by cutting military spending
Nicole identified that Hannah had committed a logical fallacy, but instead of addressing the substance of her claim, Hannah accused Nicole of committing a fallacy earlier on in the conversation.
Appeal to Emotion Example
Bob did not want to eat the brussels sprouts , but his dad told him to think of all those poor, starving, kids in Africa.
A commercial claims that 3 out of 4 dentists would choose this particular brand of toothpaste for their own families to use.
No True Scotsman
Angus declares that no Scotsman puts sugar in their porridge. Lachlan points out that he is a Scotsman and puts sugar in his porridge. Angus yells that NO TRUE SCOTSMAN puts sugar in their porridge!
Moving the Goalpost
A boss tells an employee that if they do X they will be promoted. Employee does X, and the boss decides to add criteria Y to the table, etc. to save the company money by not giving the employee a promotion.
Ad Hominem example
Person A: I think that the US will come out of this recession quickly.
Person B: What do you know about economics? You don't even have a job!
Black and White
I thought you cared about other people, but I didn't see you at the fundraiser for the Harris Family.
Appeal to Nature
Bob said that it is only natural that people be wary of artificial medicine.
Recognizing that Amanda had committed a fallacy in arguing that we should eat healthy food because a nutritionist said it was popular, Alyse said we should therefore eat bacon double cheeseburgers every day.
Non Sequitur example
he's a columnist for the campus newspaper, so he must be a pretty good writer
The makers of Hershey chocolate pointed to research showing that of the 5 countries where Hershey sold the most chocolate, 3 of them were in the top ten healthiest countries on earth, therefore Hershey's chocolate is healthy
I met some students from Fort Riley yesterday, who were very polite. I think all children from that area must be well-behaved.
Missing the Point
"The seriousness of a punishment should match the seriousness of the crime. Right now, the punishment for drunk driving may simply be a fine. But drunk driving is a very serious crime that can kill innocent people. So the death penalty should be the punishment for drunk driving."
"President Jones raised taxes, and then the rate of violent crime went up. Jones is responsible for the rise in crime."
Slippery Slope example
If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.
Weak Analogy example
Clyde: "I think it is all right for governments in developing countries to execute citizens who don't agree with the government. If you want to make an omelet, then you have to break a few eggs."
Appeal to Ignorance example
No one can prove that the Loch Ness monster does not exist; therefore the Loch Ness monster exists.
The commercial says, "99% of tablet owners, buy the iPad. It's the most popular choice around."
Red Herring example
Person A: What about Christmas?
Person B: Well, my aunt is coming next week.
Begging the Question example
Paranormal activity is real because I have experienced what can only be described as paranormal activity.
The sign said "fine for parking here", and since it was fine, I parked there.
What argument is known as the classical style?
1. Introduce the issue
2. Present your case
3. Address the opposition
4. Provide your proof
5. Present your conclusion
What are the five steps to the Aristotelian argument?
Plea and appeal
What two words are associated with the conclusion of an Aristotelian argument?
What argument is more modern and nuance?
1. Introduce the problem
2. Acknowledge the other side
3. Present your side
4. Bring the two sides together
5. Remind your audience of the balanced perspective
What are the steps of the Rogerian argument?
What argument has no specific pattern and varies by situation?
The claim is always going to be first unless and attention getter is present.
What is always true about a Toulmin argument in regards to the claim?
The claim is first, then the grounds, and then the warrants.
What is always true about the order of the Toulmin argument?
Qualifiers and rebuttals
What two parts of a Toulmin argument can go just about anywhere?
What is the statement of opinion that the author is asking her or his audience to accept as true?
What are the facts, data, or reasoning which the claim is based on? Essentially, these are the facts making the case for the claim.
What links the grounds to the claim?
What is additional support for the claim by addressing different questions related to your claim?
What are the limits to the claim or an understanding that the claim is not true in all situations?
When the author addresses the opposing view
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