61 terms

History chapter 5 Key points & vocabulary (8th/9th?)

India and Persia
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calvary
soilderswho rode horses or camels, to make swift attacks
tribute
yearly payments to the emperor
couriers
riders
prophet
a person who others believe speaks or writes with divine
Zoroastrianism
belief in two gods
Cyrus
built the Persian Empire
Darius
a succesful organizer
Zarathustra
began the religion called Zaroastrianism
rajahs
princes
assassination
murder for a political reason
turning point
time of important change
missionaries
people who teach about their religion
arabic numerals
numbers 1-9 and zero
inoculation
giving a person some type of medicine help them not get a disease
Chandragupta Maurya
a harsh ruler who united India and formed the Maurya Empire
Ashoka
followed the teachings of Buddha
aryans
warriors and herders from eastern Europe and western Asia who came to India about 3,00 years ago
vedas
ancient books of sacred hindu writings
Hinduism
an Indian religion featuring belief in many gods and reincarnation
caste
a group within a social pyramid
Buddhism
an Asian religion based on the teachings of Siddartha and Gautama who became a buddha
Hindu Kush
trade route
Brahmans
Priests and scholars
Kshatriyas
rulers and warriors
Vaisyas
Farmers and merchants
Sudras
laborers, craftworkers, servants
Untouchables
did unpleasant jobs; picked up garbage, cleaned stables, and handled the dead
monsoon
the season when moist winds blowing from the Indian ocean toward the Indian subcontinent bring heavy rains
Indus and Ganges
the two great rivers of the Indian subcontinent
Himalayas
north of the Indian's subcontinent
Ganges
Indian's holiest river
Indus
the largest river in India
Indra
the god of thunderstorms
Subcontinent
A large area of land that is part of a continent but separated by geography (like a large mountain range).
Monsoon
The season when moist wind blowing from the Indian Ocean toward the Indian subcontinent bringing heavy rains.
Deforestation
The widespread cutting down of trees. Most of Northern India's forests have been cut down.
Ganges River
India's holiest river.
Mountains/High Elevations
Air is thinner and cooler here than at lower elevations.
Monsoon Season
Continuous rain for 4 months every year on the Indian subcontinent.
The Himalayas
These mountains form a natural barrier between the subcontinent and the rest of Asia.
The Punjab
The river plain that surrounds the Indus River.
Worlds Tallest Mountains
The Himalayas
Cotton and Sesame Seeds
What farmers planted just before the Monsoon Season.
Barley and Wheat
What farmers planter during the Winter.
Fortress
A building designed to protect a city or army.
Inscription
A written message.
Assimilate
To accept into the general population of another culture.
Why Aryans left Central Asia
Changes in the environment or an invasion may have been the cause.
Where Aryans came from:
Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Aryans
The earliest immigrants to India. These people changed the language and religion of India. Means "noble."
Sanskrit
The Aryan language which influenced the development of languages that continue to be spoken in India.
The Vedas
The Aryans' holiest book, written in Sanskrit, 4 books of sacred writings describe the Aryan religion.
4 Castes
The Aryans divided their society into 4 classes or varna, these social classes led to India's caste system.
Buddha
Who spent his life spreading the message that people should seek LOVE, TRUTH, JOY OF KNOWLEDGE and A CALM MIND.
What Gautama saw when he left the palace
An old man, a sick man and a dead body.
Nirvana
What Buddhists search for, this is a feeling of happiness, peace and complete understanding.
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhists follow these eight points in their search for Nirvana.
Hinduism
The Aryan religion developed into this, and it is one of the oldest religions still practiced today. Believers worship 3 main gods - Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer, and that people live many lives until they reach spiritual perfection.
Reincarnation
After a person dies, their soul lives on and returns to life in a new body. Those who lead good lives are reborn into higher social positions.
Untouchables
This caste was the lowest, below all other castes. These people did all of the unpleasant jobs like picking up garbage or cleaning stables.
Gautama
The son of an Indian prince, this man called himself Buddha or the "Enlightened One", tried to figure out how to end suffering. Became a begger. Buddhism was formed from his teachings.