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mush exam (all chapters)
Terms in this set (160)
Initially, U.S. involvement in Vietnam was popular because
the public feared communism
the tet offensive altered public opinion of the war because
war seemed unwinnable
Nixon's plan of Vietnamization secretly included
bombing laos and cambodia
US president who took a major role in escalating the vietnam war and was the first president to send troops
1968 democratic candidate for president who ran to succeed incumbent lyndon b. johnson on an anti-war platform
the main negotiator of the peace treaty with the north vietnamese; secretary of state during nixon's presidency (1970s)
sprayed on vietnamese jungles; killed environment, making it harder for viet cong to hide; caused cancer in many soldiers
program started by pres. nixon to make south vietnam responsible for its own defense while slowly pulling US troops out of vietnam
supply route/trail from north vietnam to viet cong in south vietnam
ho chi minh trail
t/f- detente was a policy of reducing cold war tensions that was adopted by the US during the presidency of richard nixon
t/f- the gulf of tonkin resolution lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 because it was unfair that those eligible for draft were not eligible to vote
t/f- rolling thunder was a bombing campaign against north vietnam by US forces
t/f- social movement that protested the war and sought out the end of the war and peace was called the "green berets"
t/f- saigon was the capital of north korea
the political theory that if one nation comes under communism control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control
Secret government documents published in 1971; revealed that the U.S. government had misled Americans about the Vietnam War
communist leader of north vietnam
ho chi minh
killed 1.5 million cambodians
american troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village, also led to more opposition to the war
german general who fought in north africa
segregated unit of african american pilots
information and ideas designed to support for a caused
Systematic murder of millions of Jews and others by the Nazis
Marines from the Navajo nation who transmitted vital military information
a surprise german offensive against allied troops in 1944
battle of the bulge
Desperate, urban neighborhoods in which a group of people are confined
Captured by Allied forces after six months of bloody combat
Reporter who covered World War II
what was a major weakness of the military early in WWII
they didn't have enough ships to form convoys to protect ships from u-boats
a crucial objective for allied forces in WWII was to
stop the massively expanding germany and japan
what successful strategy did roosevelt and churchill use in the invasion of sicily
an appeal to the italian people
how did adolf hitler build support for nazi anti-semitism
by blaming jews for economic woes and appealing to injured german pride
what was the significance of the battle of midway
It changed the entire balance of power in the Pacific
a pilot who loaded his aircraft with bombs and deliberately crashed into an enemy ship was called a
For American soldiers, one of the most feared aspects of the war in the Pacific was the
willingness of the japanese to fight to the death
many american women contributed to the war effort by
planting victory gardens, dealing with rationing, and buying war bonds
The removal of people to internment camps during WWII was based solely on
a person's racial background
which of the following divided germany into four sectors
Truman decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan because
he hoped to avoid an invasion that would result in massive allied casualties
what event caused germany to surrender
which of the following brought an end to WWII
hirohito's announcement in a radio broadcast
After heavy early losses from U-boat attacks, the Allies first chose what strategy to protect their ships?
traveling in large convoys that included armed ships
Control of North Africa was vital for the Allies because
it kept shipping lanes on the mediterranean sea open
german forces in north africa were led by
erwin rommel "the desert fox"
what was the primary purpose of operation overlord
to drive the german forces from france
which of the following best describes why few jews were able to emigrate from germany to the US
the US limited immigration because of its weak economy and misunderstanding of german atrocities
What was the ultimate goal of the Nazi's Final Solution?
to murder all jews in europe and the Soviet union
the battle of the coral sea was significant in the pacific because
first time the allies fought a land, sea and air battle
The Japanese impressed Americans at Iwo Jima and Okinawa primarily with
their resolve to fight to the last man even if defeat was certain
hollywood's roll during WWII can best be described as
supporting the war effort
which of the following were forced to leave their homes and move to camps away from the american coasts
Allied forces began their attack on mainland Italy from which island?
Why was Hitler's decision to defend the Rhine River unwise?
it resulted in the allies capturing a quarter million german soldiers
At what Russian city on the Volga did the Germans suffer a major defeat?
after WWII, the united states worked
to rebuild europe and japan
auschwitz, dachau, and bergen-belsen were locations of
nazi death camps
the battle of the bulge was given its name because
the german attack created a bulge in the allied battle lines
during the bataan death march
American and Filipino soldiers were forced to march for miles or be beaten and shot by Japanese troops
which of the following best describes the reason that the navajo code talkers were so effective?
the japanese could not break the code sent in the complex, unwritten navajo language
an important difference between government spending during the depression and during the WWII was that
it rose sharply during WWII
t/f- the soviet union was drawn into WWII before the US
t/f- hitler used the military strength of the jews to build suspicion and racism that led to the final solution
t/f- douglas macarthur vowed to return to the philippines after being forced to abandon his troops on the bataan peninsula
t/f- ernie pyle was among a group of battle-hardened reporters who gave live radio broadcasts from positions near the front lines
t/f- WWII ended in the pacific earlier than the fighting in europe did
this statement by john f. kennedy best supports the policy of
what took place during the kenndy administration?
cuban missile crisis, berlin crisis, bay of pigs invasion, space program
During the Kennedy-Khrushchev era, America and the Soviet union came close to war over crises in Cuba and?
the "hot line" and the nuclear test ban treaty were attempts to?
reduce tensions between the US and soviet union
pres. kennedy's main goal in the US's 1962 decision to blockade cuba was to
force the soviet union to remove its missiles from cuba
which of the following statements about martin luther king jr's speech in washington in 1963 is correct
it turned a political rally into a historic event and recalled the nation to the ideals of justice and equality
When James Meredith attempted to attend the University of Mississippi as that institution's first black student, President Kennedy?
ordered federal marshals to protect and defend him and ultimately ordered 5000 troops into the campus
the "centerpiece" of lyndon johnson's "war on poverty" was the
office of economic opportunity with emphasis on community action
the primary reason for the crushing republican party defeat in 1964 was that
americans thought goldwater was too extreme and he was trigger-happy with nuclear weapons
pres. johnson received authorization for the use of force in vietnam through
the tonkin gulf resolution
Both the New Frontier and the Great Society shared the idea that
the federal government should meet the economic and social needs of the less fortunate
what was the 1968 tet offensive
a series of massive coordinated attacks throughout south vietnam
in the 1968 presidential election, george wallace enjoyed an unusually high degree of support for a third-party candidate because he argued
against civil rights and desegregation and he hated war protesters
belief in the domino theory would most likely lead a person to support
the policy of containment
why did president roosevelt declare a "blank holiday" on his second day of office?
he wanted to stop the run on banks that threatened even the healthiest financial institutions
What was one basic purpose shared by the Emergency Banking Act, the Glass-Steagal Act, and President Roosevelt's fireside chats?
to increase the public's confidence and to calm them down
during the hundred days, why was a program approved to pay farmers not to grow crops?
to reduce supply and drive up prices
how did president roosevelt's philosophy differ from herbert hoover's?
he believed that in times of crisis, it was acceptable for government to aid people directly
How did Eleanor Roosevelt transform the role of First Lady?
gathered info for roosevelt, traveled, wrote, and attacked social problems
Who was Mary McLeod Bethune?
first african american woman to head a federal agency, unofficial head of the "black cabinet"
what is a pension
regular payments made to retired or disabled people
what are subsidies
financial support given by the government
what is the wagner act
federal government recognizes the right of workers to unionize and use collective bargaining
what is meant by the "bank holiday"
FDR closed banks for 4 days to help stabilize them, only reopened the stable ones
what was the NLRB
National Labor Relations Board watched over labor during the war making sure strikes did not occur
AAA stands for?
Agricultural Adjustment Act
what was the purpose of the fair labor standards act
established min. wages, the 40hr work week and min. age of 16 to work
the first part of FDR's first term, during which congress passed many new deal programs
the hundred days
Employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians
radio speeches given by FDR during his presidency which were meant to reach the american people and reassure them that better times were coming
set up in 1933 to build dams and supply electricity, water, and stop floods
new deal program that offered safeguards for workers, widows, and children
social security act
established during the 1930s to protect bank deposits
employed young men to go out and work in parks and forests
program designed to teach young people a trade
Truman's response to the Berlin Blockade was to?
airlift all necessary supplies into Berlin for almost a year
the marshall plan could best be understood as part of an american desire to
make communism less appealing to europeans creating economic prosperity
pres. truman contributed to anti-communist fear after WWII by
ordering investigations into the loyalty of federal employees
Harry Truman aided the cause of civil rights by?
Desegregating the armed forces
the UN was able to provide military assistance to south korea in 1950 because
the general assembly approved the decision
the house un-american activites committee was
responsible for a series of highly publicized hearings designed to expose communist influence in american life
at the beginning of the cold war, US policy toward the soviet union tended to follow the idea of
what did leaders at the yalta conference decide about post-war poland?
the soviets could return their communist party but they would allow free elections
the marshall plan was designed to fight communism by
providing aid to rebuild eurpean colonies
what was the soviet role in the korean war
provided extensive military aid to communist forces on north korea
in 1949 _______________ shocked americans and led them to begin practicing bomb drills and building fallout shelters
the soviet testing of the h-bombs
great britain, france, and the US wanted germany reunified to
help stabilize europe
For Korea, the aftermath of WWII most closely paralleled
the division of germany
Someone accused of McCarthyism would be likely to engage in
all these occurred in the US during the cold war EXCEPT
protection of free speech
the GI bill refers to
legislation being passed by congress pertaining to education, unemployment compensation, loans for home building and medical care for vets
which of the following was not a communist spy case?
a. mitchell palmer
Which man established a totalitarian regime in the Soviet Union?
edward r. murrow's live radio broadcasts described
the air raids as bombs exploded around him
Which policy was espoused by both liberals and conservatives in the United States before World War II?
why did hitler attack denmark and norway
to improve germany's access to the atlantic ocean
which of the following may have encouraged hitler to begin taking control of neighboring countries?
the league of nations' unwillingness to take action against territorial expansion by japan or italy
Why were many Americans committed to isolationism in the 1930s?
the destruction of WWI had seemed pointless to them
which of the following was an essential component of fascism
fransisco franco of spain was
a fascist dictator
which of the following policies did isolationism favor
what was a common feature of the totalitarian regimes that came to power after WWI
they depend on the use of violence
Why was the decision to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland popular in many parts of the world?
many people thought it would avoid another destructive war
Why was the U.S. Unwilling to let Japan expand into Southeast Asia?
the area contained valuable natural resources
japan, germany, and italy formed an alliance called
the axis powers
People who do not believe in using military force for any reason are known as
in 1939, what caused the prime minister of great britain to question the success of his policy of appeasement
the fall of poland suggested that hitler would continue to attack neighboring nations
the top-secret program to build an atomic bomb was called the
which of the following US responses to german aggression provided the most aid to great britain in the early stages of WWII
in the 1930s how did pres. roosevelt respond to isolationist pressures in the face of fascist aggression
he urged countries to quarantine aggressive nations
which event led to the germany's control over france
the french didn't expect the germans to attack through the ardennes forest
during WWII african americans
served in the military and took jobs that used to be unavailable
What was one difference between Benito Mussolini and Adolph Hitler
hitler stressed the superiority of the aryan race, mussolini didn't
By 1933 the Nazis became the most powerful party in Germany because
they effectively played on public discontent and promised to revive german greatness
although american officials were convinced that the war with japan was inevitable, they refused to fire the first shot. one reason was probably that
many americans were isolationists and would not support a first strike
Symbolized the contributions of working American women during World War II
rosie the riveter
US army chief of staff
george c. marshall
union of austria with germany
democratic government in germany prior to hitler's dictatorship
Meant to prevent the US from being drawn into war
Hitler's book outlining his political ideas
Established a dictatorship in Italy
Policy that allowed countries at war to purchase American goods
secret aggreement between the US and great britain
Made more soldiers available for combat
waves, wac, waac, wasp
top-secret program to build an atomic bomb
Wanted to avoid armed conflict with Germany
great britain and france
tech that used radio waves to detect approaching airplanes
a fascist dictator
a change to US neutrality laws
japan, germany, and japan
government by a leader who holds unchallenged power and authority
Why was the U.S. Unwilling to let Japan expand into Southeast Asia?
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