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Chapter 2 - Human Nature
Terms in this set (55)
For Aristotle, happiness is ___.
- to be found in this world
- an end that is never a means to anything else
- best achieved by regulating one's life according to the dictates of reason
According to Confucius, virtue ____.
- is the foundation of a well-ordered society
- is love for all humanity
- is the basis of all morality
- requires self-control
Our views about human nature affect ____.
- our relationship to other people
- our relationship to the universe
- what we do with our lives
Thomas Hobbes believed ____.
- humans are basically selfish
- humans desire power over others
- humans are basically machines
The ____ view holds that the human self creates its own nature.
For Aristotle, knowledge of forms depends on ____.
experiences in this life
In the chariot analogy in Plato's Phaedrus, the horses represent ____.
the two parts of the soul that obey reason
Aristotle's students included ____.
Alexander the Great
Plato held that personal happiness and virtue ____.
depend on properly subordinating the parts of the soul so that the whole is harmonious
Plato believed the self consisted of ____.
reason, aggression, and appetite
Confucius held that the best way for a ruler to instill virtue in his subjects is to ____.
Plato's story about Leontius is used to demonstrate that ____.
spirit is separate from appetite
The difference between behaviorism and functionalism lies in the different things they say about ____.
private mental states
According to Confucius, ____ is the ultimate value.
According to Confucius, in order to ensure social harmony it is of particular importance that ____ practice virtue.
In the Christian tradition, ____ was influenced by ____.
Searle rejects the computer theory of human nature because ____.
computers do not have conciousness
Existentialism views freedom as ____
a state of being
Aristotle believed that the truth about human nature ____.
required only knowledge of our own world
According to Sigmund Freud, people are naturally ____.
cruel, aggressive, and selfish
___ teaches that the self is an illusion.
For Aristotle, the form of a thing consists of ___.
the qualities which make it the kind of thing it is
Behind the idea of the Turing test is a ____ view of consciousness.
___ wrote: "Existence precedes essence."
Plato argues that a man is just when ___.
each part within him does what is proper for it to do
According to Hegel, each person depends on other people to provide ___.
recognition as a free being
For Aristotle, aiming at the mean ___.
- Means avoiding both excess and deficiency
- will promote happiness
- will promote moral virtue
The reason or purpose of something is called its ___.
____ was a Western philosopher whose commitments to empiricism led him to conclude the self was but a fiction.
Plato held that the best political ruler would be a ___.
The starting point of existentialism, for Sartre is the idea that ___.
human beings are "condemned to be free"
For Aristotle, to say something has a soul is to say that ___.
It is alive
Plato believed his forms ____.
- must be real
- must exist outside the mind
- must exist in a transcendent realm
- are inaccessible to human senses
According to Rene Descartes, the mind interacts with the body via the ___.
One possible danger of a rationalist view of human nature is that ___.
human beings who are less than fully rational may be considered subhuman
Plato believed the forms ___.
are more real than their replicas
Eliminative materialism says that in an adequate theory of human nature, all reference to ____ will have to be given up.
Feminists object that the rationalist view of human nature ____.
- is biased against women
- values reason above emotion
- associates women with emotion
- associates men with reason
The ethics of Confucius is based on ___.
The substance of which something is composed is called its ___.
For Confucius, the heart of virtue is ___.
According to Augustine, a person's actions are guided by ___.
reason and will
Rene Descartes argued that body and soul must be separate because ___.
we can conceive of one without the other
For Plato, all true knowledge ___.
is a recollection from a prior existence
The Buddha's followers ___.
practiced a middle way between asceticism and worldly indulgence
According to Sartre, because there is no God, ____.
we are each responsible for creating our own nature and purpose
Desmond Morris suggests that apparently unselfish behavior is actually a kind of selfish activity, aimed at ____.
preserving one's genes
For Aristotle, the natural function of a human being is the exercise of ____.
Sartre believed ____.
there can be no external justification for our values
The idea that one kind of reality can be completely understood in terms of another kind is called ____.
Thomas Hobbes denied the existence of an immaterial mind partly because ____.
he did not see how an immaterial mind could affect a material body
In his conversation with Simias, Socrates argues that ____.
- the soul is like what is unchanging,
- the body is like what is changing
(a and b only)
According to Déscartes, the enduring self is characterized by ____.
Plato argues that a man is just when ____.
each part within him does what is proper for it to do.
Aristotle believed there were ____ different kinds of causes.
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