67 terms

APUSH vocab terms chapter 12

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Romanticism
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Hudson River School
A group of landscape painters originally known as simply "American" or "Native" painters, the Hudson River School acquired its present name because of its early focus on the dramatic landscape of the Hudson River Valley in New York. While Thomas Cole is usually considered the "father" of the Hudson River tradition, other important painters including Asher Durand, Frederic Church, Albert Bierstadt, and Martin Johnson Heade contributed to the development of this movement. Highlighting the awesome, monumental quality of the American landscape, these artists were fundamentally optimistic about westward expansion and the promise of democracy. In their quest for new and spectacular effects, the Hudson River artists journeyed far beyond the Hudson River by the mid-nineteenth century, traveling to the Rocky Mountains, California, and even South America to record the expanse and grandeur of the continents.
James Fennimore Cooper
Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.
Whitman, Walt
Poet and wrote Leaves of Grass. He was very romantic and emotional. Was popular in America and Europe after his death.
Melville, Herman
One of the greatest American novelists, his works include the masterpiece "Moby Dick" and the short story "Bartleby the Scrivener"
Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo
Emerson was the leading transcendentalist thinker of the early nineteenth century. Optimism and self-confidence marked his philosophy, and, like other romantics, he glorified individualism and self-reliance. He described his beliefs in "The American Scholar."
Thoreau, Henry D
Thoreau, like Ralph Waldo Emerson, was a leading literary romantic and transcendentalist in the early nineteenth century. He admired raw nature and the simple life, and he valued the freedom of the self-reliant individual. He wrote "Walden" and "Civil Disobedience."
Civil disobedience
Henry David Thoreau advocated this process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are unjust.
Utopias
Robert Owen and others built Utopias- ideal communities- where everyone is equal and shares everything they have. Attempts at Utopias have never produced a good, sustainable community.
Brooke Farm
..., an experiment in Utopian socialism which lasted for 6 years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, MA. It was created by George Ripley as a thinking tank, combining high thinking and plain living. It survived only because of an excellent community school, which many from outside the community paid to send their children too.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel
New England's Puritan heritage and its continuing influence fascinated romantic novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne. His books, including "The Scarlet Letter," analyzed the themes of guilt and pride.
Owen, Robert
Owen was a British utopian socialist who believed in economic and political equality, and considered competition debasing. He founded New Harmony, Indiana, a commune where members challenged the sexual and religious mores of Jacksonian America. It became a costly failure.
New Harmony
Communal society of around one thousand members, established in New Harmony, Indiana by Robert Owen. The community attracted a hodgepodge of individuals, from scholars to crooks, and fell apart due to infighting and confusion after just two years.
Mother Ann Lee
The founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, or Shakers. During the 1770s she emigrated from England to the town of Watervliet, New York to avoid persecution. The method of worship she and others followed was one of ecstatic dancing or "shaking", which dubbed them as the Shaking Quakers.
Oneidas
This radical community was established in New York in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes. They repudiated the old Puritan doctrines that God was vengeful and that sinful mankind was doomed. Instead, they believed in a benign deity, the sweetness of human nature, and the possibility of a perfect Christian community on Earth. They thought that the key to happiness was the suppression of selfishness. The community practiced free love, birth control, and the eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. Everyone in the community lived together in the Mansion House and shared all the tasks that needed to be done. This curious enterprise flourished for more than thirty years, largely because its artisans made superior steel traps.
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".
Noyes, John Humphrey
Was an American Utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida Community in 1848; believed in a benign deity, in the sweetness of human nature, and in the possibility of a perfect Christian community on earth
Perfectionism
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
millennialism
much of religious enthusiasm of the time was based on the widespread belief that the world was about to end with the second coming of Christ; preacher William Miller gained tens of thousands of followers by predicting a specific date when the second coming would occur (didn't happen-Millerites will become Seventh Day Adventists)
Shakers
(established c. 1770s) Called "shakers" for their lively dance worship, they emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy. First transplanted to America from England by Mother Ann Lee, the Shakers counted six thousand members by 1840, though by the 1940's the movement had largely died out.
Amanas
ordered, socialist society founded by German immigrants in Iowa that had Christian ideals; made wool
Mormons
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Smith, Joseph
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons), the young Smith gained a following after an angel directed him to a set of golden plates which, when deciphered, became the Book of Mormon. Smith's communal, authoritarian church and his advocacy of plural marriage antagonized his neighbors in Ohio, Missouri, and finally Illinois, where he was murdered by a mob in 1844.
Burned-over district
area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.
Finney, Charles G.
Finney was probably the most effective of a number of charismatic evangelists who brought the Second Great Awakening to its crest in the early 1830s. He encouraged his listeners to take their salvation into their own hands and preached that salvation was available to anyone.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Revivalism
an American Christian movement sometimes described as born-again Christianity, which is based on the experience of a personal conversion to Jesus Christ as one's Lord and savior
Temperance movement
A social movement, born in the 19th century, to reduce the consumption of alcohol in America. This movement was popular among women, who had to face their husbands and fathers "drinking away" the family savings, and dealt with alcohol related problems such as job loss, violence, and domestic abuse
Dow, Neal
Nineteenth century temperance activist, dubbed the "Father of Prohibition" for his sponsorship of the Main Law of 1851, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol in the state.
Phrenology
A discredited pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
John Warren
was one of the most renowned American surgeons of the 19th century. In 1846 he gave permission to William T.G. Morton to provide ether anesthesia while Warren performed a minor surgical procedure. News of this first public demonstration of surgical anesthesia quickly circulated around the world.
Mann, Horace
Horace Mann was, with Henry Barnard, a leader of the common school movement in early-nineteenth-century America. He became the first secretary of the Massachusetts School Board, and he promoted public education for all children as training for both employment and citizenship.
McGuffey Readers
One of the first known textbooks, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, sell about 30,000 copies a year. McGuffey's Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for home schooling purposes.
Perkins School for the Blind
This was one of the institutions of the Benevolent Empire. It helped teach people who could not see and exemplified that idea that even societies most disadvantaged members could still be helped to discover their own inner strength and wisdom.
Asylums
institution for people with mental illnesses; overcrowding lead to poor living conditions for the patients - treated with "bloodletting" and "frightening out the disease"
Penitentiary
An institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so they can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform.
Dix, Dorothea
In the early nineteenth century, Dix devoted herself to a campaign to improve the care of the insane. She traveled extensively inspecting asylums, prisons, and almshouses, but in the long run, her hopes for reform were not realized.
Almshouses
are charitable housing provided to enable people (typically elderly people who can no longer work to earn enough to pay rent) to live in a particular community. They are often targeted at the poor of a locality, at those from certain forms of previous employment, or their widows, and are generally maintained by a charity or the trustees of a bequest
Indian Reservations
Indians were sent to reservations to "protect their culture". In reality, these reservations just pulled Indians off of lands the whites wanted and kept them separate from American society.
Seneca Falls Conference
the first major meeting to discuss equal rights for women in the US, wrote Declaration of Sentiments-drafted after the Declaration of Independence, laid out womens' demands. Reactions: some women felt empowered, others were very critical
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.
Mott, Lucretia
Like many women who began their public careers in the abolitionist movement, Mott subsequently turned to advocate women's rights. She and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention for women's rights in 1848.
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Quakers
A group that believed in a simple lifestyle and in treating all people equally; they refused to bow before the king, fight in wars, or pay taxes to the Church of England
Emma Willard
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
Stone, Lucy
Abolitionist and women's rights activist, who kept her maiden name after marriage inspiring other women—"Lucy Stoners"—to follow her example. Though she campaigned to include women in the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, she did not join Stanton and Anthony in denouncing the amendments when it became clear the changes would not be made. In 1869 she founded the American Woman Suffrage Association, which lobbied for suffrage primarily at the state level.
Bloomer, Amelia
Reformer and women's rights activist, who championed dress reform for women, wearing short skirts with Turkish trousers or "bloomers", as a healthier and more comfortable alternative to the tight corsets and voluminous skirts popular with women of her day.
Abolitionism
Movement to end slavery during the 1800's
American Colonization Society
1817- est. by people worried of the impact of slavery and race on society. They argued slavery had to end, and americans had to send black slaves back to Africa. Was a failure of a plan. Few planters freed their slaves, some blacks didn't want to leave even. America even bought land in africa, liberia, to place the slaves. Only six thousand slaves were transported. West coast of Africa.
Liberia
A West African nation founded in 1822 by the American Colonization Society to serve as a homeland for free blacks to settle
Garrison, William Lloyd
Garrison, publisher of "The Liberator," was a radical abolitionist. He called for immediate, uncompensated emancipation of slaves and for racial equality. His confrontational tactics and extremist views repelled moderate abolitionists as well as the general public.
The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
American Antislavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
Walker, David
(1785-1830) American black abolitionist noted for pamphlet, Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, a commanding anti-slavery work that sparked fear into Southern slave owners
Douglass, Frederick
February 1818 - February 20, 1895) was an American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining notoriety for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing.
Amistad case
On board the Amistad, African slaves bound for Cuba committed mutiny. They wanted to go back to Africa, but only made it to NY, where there was a big controversy and trial to decide if they should get their freedom or not. John Quincy Adams argued the case in front of the Supreme Court and the court ruled in favor of the slaves. They got freedom.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Personal liberty laws
pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.
Gag resolution
Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
Liberty Party
A political party that started during the two party systems in the 1840's.The party's main platform was bringing an end to slavery by political and legal means. The party was originally part of the American Anti-slavery however; they split because they believed there was a more practical way to end slavery than Garrison's moral crusade.
Grimke, Angelina
Angelina and Sarah Grimke, sisters from South Carolina, began their public careers in the abolitionist movement. Male abolitionists objected to their prominence in the movement, and the sisters turned to advocacy of women's rights.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe written to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Act
Stowe, Harriet Beecher
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Arthur & Lewis Tappan
in 1826, these brothers began to import silk from Asia and they quickly earned a fortune. They gave money to Abolitionist causes and became very strong abolitionists
Lovejoy, Elijah
He was a reformer. He was an American Presbyterian and abolitionist who died for the cause. He was murdered by a mob for his publication of abolitionist materials. He was America's first martyr for freedom of the press.
Truth, Sojourner
American abolitionist and orator. Born enslaved, but gained her freedom and became an evangelist. In 1843, changed her name to Sojourner Truth and began a life-long campaign against slavery and for women suffrage.