1. Opportunity (economic/political) 2. Government sponsorship + encouragement 3. Renaissance curiosity of the New World 4. Spice trade 5. *WEALTH*
Venetian traveler; wrote "Book of Various Experiences" which stimulated the spice trade between Asia & Italy
-deeply religious -knowledgable about the sea -enslaved/killed many natives -inaccurate interpretations of places -discoveries set the stage for many future issues with settlement and trade
What were some of the problems Christopher Columbus created with his discoveries?
1. trade 2. settlers 3. relations to natives 4. government bureaucracy
How was the news of Columbus's discoveries spread to all of Europe?
1. letter ("Journal") published in Barcelona in Spanish 2. later translated into Latin in Rome and spread all over continent
first to describe America as a separate continent from Asia
What did the Caribbean Islands represent to explorers?
millions of natives in need of being converted to Christianity
What was the main driving force for Spanish exploration in South America?
commissioned by Charles V to find a direct route to the Moluccan Islands; discovered that the earth was very large and round
Spanish explorer that conquered the Aztec Empire; made it New Spain with New Mexico its capital; rich silver mines
Spanish explorer that conquered the Inca Empire; est. Peru with Lima as the capital; richest silver mines in the New World
Which city was the commercial/financial capital of Europe during this time?
The Flemish city of Antwerp
What city was the next commercial/financial capital after Antwerp?
Dutch East India Company
imperialism*; expelled Portuguese from many trading posts and took over Spanish possessions in Americas and gained control of much of African/American trade
discovered Newfoundland and New England coast for England; no precious metals = no interest
"Golden Century" of Spain
Catholicism, wealth, and Spanish armies influenced all of Europe; influx of precious metals from the New World
What happened when the population increased?
a demand for food/goods increased, which triggered inflation due to the inability to levy taxes fast enough to balance the economy; inflation
What did the Spanish inflation cause?
inflation throughout all of Europe (depended on Spanish bullion)
How were the new Spanish lands governed?
What were the 4 viceroyalties in the Spanish New World?
1. New Spain 2. Peru 3. New Granada 4. La Plata
How did the Portuguese govern their colonies in Brazil?
union of Portugal/Spanish crown = Spanish administrative forms used
local officials in Brazil
Why did England lag in expansion to the New World?
lost interest due to the lack of precious metals in North America
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
ended Habsburg-Valois Wars; gave Spain dominance in Italy *ended era of dynastic wars and started period of religious/political wars
What medieval idea did the Protestant Reformation kill?
the idea of a unified Christian society under 1 political rulers and 1 church that everyone belonged to; Peace of Westphalia ended this
What difficulties were France facing originally?
-population losses -low money value due to inflation = hurt nobility -money issues -protestantism appeared in 1518
How did Francis I raise revenue to handle the finances of the H-V Wars?
1. sale of public offices 2. treaty with the papacy- Concordat of Bologna: recognized supremacy of the papacy in return to appoint bishops/abbots
What caused the violence/civil war in France?
How did the nobility react to the weak monarchy?
became Calvinist for independence from central power, which lead to conflicts among Calvinist/Catholic lords, violence, and struggle for power
French Calvinists; separate political party
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris after being accused that symbols/images were not holy; many killed
What marriage was intended to reconcile the Calvinists and Catholics in France?
Margaret of Valois (Catholic) and Henry of Navarre (Protestant)
What triggered the War of Three Henrys?
Henry of Guise's attack on Calvinist admiral Coligny; thousands of Huguenots killed
War of the Three Henrys
civil conflict among 2 parties; led by Protestant Henry of Navarre, Catholic Henry of Guise, and King Henry III
an alliance of Catholic nobles intended to destroy Calvinism and replace Henry III with a member of the Guise family
small group of Catholic moderates who believed that only the restoration of a strong monarchy could reverse collapse
The Edict of Nantes (1598)
document issued by Henry IV of France granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France.
What effect did the spread of Protestantism have on the Netherlands?
Charles V at first tried to mildly suppress it, but it became more and more popular until Margaret ordered the Inquisition to wipe it out **divided provinces
When Charles V abdicated, to whom did his lands go to?
1. Ferdinand: Austria + HRE 2. Philip: Spain, Low Countries, Sicily + Milan, Spanish territories in America
What triggered the fanatical Calvinist rampage of destruction on August 1566?
Margaret raised taxes in the Netherlands and united opposition to the government's financial policy to officially repress Calvinism
What happened during the fanatical Calvinist rampage?
-aimed at religious images, not people, as false doctrines -tore down Cathedral of Notre Dame at Antwerp; destroyed libraries/churches
How did Philip react to this event?
sent troops, under the duke of Alva, to pacify the destruction
Council of Blood
ruthless extermination council led by the duke of Alva
Prince William of Orange "The Silent"
lead the 17 provinces in uniting
duke of Parma; sent by Philip II to finally crush the revolt; used knowledge of war tactics to quiet cities 1 by 1; Protestants forced to convert of leave
How were the 17 provinces divided religiously?
1. 10 southern provinces = under control of Spanish Habsburg (Catholic) 2. 7 northern provinces = Union of Utrecht = United Provinces of Netherlands (1581) (Protestant)
Union of Utrecht (1581)
alliance of 7 northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands
What 3 developments forced Queen Elizabeth of England to support the United Provinces?
1. wars in Low Countries -damaged wool industry 2. murder of William the Silent -loss of military check of Farnese 3. collapse of Antwerp -Catholic sweep through Netherlands **feared Spanish invasion, so sent troops
What did Philip II consider himself?
international defender of Catholicism and heir to medieval imperial power
la felicissima armada
Spanish armada; sailed from Lisbon across English channel to transport the Flemish army and protect against English
What resulted from the Spanish armada?
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
recognized independent power of German princes; faith of prince=religion of subjects
What two groups were formed by Protestants and Catholics when violating the POA?
Protestant Union (led by Ferdinand of Styria) and Catholic League (led by Prince Frederick of the Palatinate)
defenestration of Prague
hurled 2 officials of the Protestant Estates of Bohemia out a window of Prague on May 23, 1618 *marked beginning of 30YW
What were the 4 phases of the 30 Years War?
1. Bohemian phase 2. Danish phase 3. Swedish phase 4. French phase
-civil war in Bohemia (Catholic League vs. Protestant Union) -Bohemians fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule -Catholic win @ Battle of the White Mtn
-participation of Danish King Christian IV -Wallenstein led Catholic forces -peak of Habsburg power -Edict of Restitution -Catholic dominance
Edict of Restitution
all Catholic properties lost to Protestants returned; only Catholic and Lutheran faiths allowed
-participation of Gustavus Adolphus (Lutheran) -Cardinal Richelieu aided Swedes -2 Protestant victories + death of GA = prompted French to side with Protestants in war
chief minister of Louis XIII of France
-France's direct intervention on Protestant side -French + Holland vs. Habsburg Spain -Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
-HRE destroyed -same terms as Augsburg -recognized independent, sovereign authority of German princes -independence of UPON acknowledged
How did sugar production influence the slave trade?
demand for sugar ^ = labor demand ^ = slaves ^
What happened to the status of women during this time?
What were the 2 main sources of racist thought for Europeans?
1. Bible depictions of good (light) and evil (dark) 2. Arab literature
Mochel de Montaigne
French nobleman; developed the essay
Elizabethan and Jacobean
refers to the literature/drama created during the reign of Elizabeth I and James I (authorized Bible)
odd-shaped, imperfect pearl
Peter Paul Rubens
artist who used color, shape, and style in his paintings
person usually a woman, believed to possess evil powers acquired by contract or association with the devil