Unit 12: WW1, Russian Revolution, Interwar Period
Terms in this set (40)
From 1870 to 1914, European nations increased expenditures on armaments
Germany and France double their armies and weapons manufacturing
Britain and France began to compete for mastery of the seas - both built battleships.
Alliances in Europe were made to maintain the balance of power on the continent.
These alliances formed a delicate balance of arranged peace between nations who entangled themselves with the struggles of other nations.
In 1914, alliances in Europe set the stage for small conflict to escalate to huge war.
Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule.
By 1900, the British Empire extended over 5 continents, and many European nations had control over areas in Africa.
The amount of land owned by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had started acquiring colonies later.
Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country
The Congress of Vienna decided upon new European borders that divided ethnic groups and states. Strong nationalist elements inspired many nationalism movements across Europe.
The Balkan region referred to as the "Powder Keg of Europe" prior to World War I because nationalistic and imperialistic rivalries were increasing.
Which nations made up the Triple Entente (also known as the Allied Powers)? p637
Which nations made up the Triple Alliance (also known as Central Powers)? p637
Why was the Balkan region referred to as a "Powder Keg" (a situation that was on the verge of exploding)? p637
There was a lot of conflict between ethnic groups and nationalists that had the potential to "explode" into a larger conflict (or war)
Whose assassination was the spark to start WWI? (p 637)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
What were the consequences of the assassination? (p 637-638)
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
Why did a stalemate develop on the Western Front? p 638-639
With the invention of new war weapons (machine guns, poison gas, etc.) in WWI, traditional 18th century warfare was replaced by trench warfare.
It difficult to gain an advantage over the enemy in trench warfare because the machine gun made it nearly impossible for troops to advance.
Therefore, the machine gun led to stalemate along the fronts
Compare and contrast the conflicts on the Eastern and Western Fronts. p 638-640
- Decisive Battles
- Fighting mostly between Germany and Russia
-Ended with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 3/3/1918
- High Casualties
- Total War
- Trench Warfare
- Little to no movement
- War of Attrition
- Fighting between Germany vs France, England, and then US
How did new military technology affect the war
-Artillery: Large caliber guns that were used in attempt to flatten the oppositions barbed wire, leave them soldiers in a state of shock and allow for an attack on the trench.
-Machine guns: Allowed for each side to protect their trenches and mow down the opposition when they attempted to attack the trench leading to high casualties and a stalemate in the west.
-Airplanes: Used to spot enemy positions, then used to attack ground target especially enemy communications, finally machine guns were mounted on planes and used to fire on other planes.
-Zeppelins: Used by Germans to bomb London and eastern England.
-Submarines: Used by Germans to combat the British blockade by attacking Navy ships and passenger liners thought to be carrying supplies.
-Barbed Wire: protected the trenches and made it difficult for the opposition to gain access
American entry into the war.
-Attacks on passenger liners carrying Americans by German submarines
-Intercepting the Zimmerman telegram from Germany to Mexico promising land to them (Mexico) if they backed Germany if US went to war with Germany
American entry into the war.
Psychological boost to Allied Powers
New source of money, war goods, resources
What is a "total war"?
Complete mobilization of resources and people. Affected the lives of all citizens in warring countries, not just soldiers
How did World War I become a total war?
The war went on much longer than originally anticipated. As resources (men and supplies) ran short, governments expanded authority to try to increase supplies. Civilians at home had to put a lot of effort into the war: rationing, working for the war effort, etc.
How did "total war" affect society? (Economic)
Governments expand control of economies (rations, price controls, regulated imports/exports, transportation).
How did "total war" affect society?(Government control/censorship)
Newspapers were censored, governments expanded police powers to suppress dissent.
How did "total war" affect society? (Propaganda)
As civilian morale weakened, governments used propaganda to increase enthusiasm for the war.
How did "total war" affect society? (Role of Women)
Women had to take on new roles as workers in fields normally reserved for men in factories, on farms, as truck drivers, etc.
After the war, many were pushed out of these jobs as men returned. However, many participating countries gave women the right to vote and many women were given more freedom/independence (living alone in apartments, working, etc).
What were the conditions like in Europe after World War I?
The Ottoman and Austrian-Hungarian Empires fell apart and became several new countries or colonies/mandates. Europe experienced financial problems and government instability during the time after World War I. By 1932, a global depression had set in. There was huge inflation (meaning money wasn't worth much) in Germany. Germany and other European countries experienced financial crises, unemployment, and poverty.
Who was not able to attend the Paris Peace Conference and why?
Germany -- losers of war, Russia - in civil war and pulled out early
What were the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles?
-Germany must pay reparations for damages caused to Allied powers
-Reduced and limited Germany's military
-Germany lost over 1/10th of its territory
Why were some groups dissatisfied with the Treaty of Versailles peace settlement?
Germans felt it was too harsh.
Describe the conditions in Russia, which eventually led to a conflict.
After its defeat by Japan and the Revolution of 1905, Russia was unprepared militarily, with no military leaders or weaponry. Czar Nicholas II took direct control of the military even though he had no ability or training. This resulted in the deaths of two million soldiers between 1914 and 1916.
the Czar relied on the military and bureaucracy to support his regime. He also relied on a mystic named Grigory Rasputin, who was rumored to be an important influence on the Czar's decisions.
The economy was a shambles and gets worse, compounded by strikes and food shortages.
What role did Grigory Rasputin play in the czarist regime and how did Russian people eventually respond? p644
Rasputin had great influence over the Czar's wife, Alexandra, who in turn had a great influence over her husband the Czar. The aristocrats who supported the Czar, grew concerned as conditions in the country became worse, and ultimately hoped to end the influence of Rasputin by assassinating him.
How did growing Russian industry and participating in WWI lead to crisis and revolution?
Russian industry was not able to produce the weapons needed for the army. The army had to train with broomsticks and soldiers were often sent to the front without a rifle with instructions to pick one up from a dead comrade. Two million people killed led to a crisis. The Duma, or legislative body, formed a provisional government and urged the czar to abdicate or resign, which he did. However, the provisional government's leader, Kerensky, kept Russia in the war which proves to be a blunder. Meanwhile, the workers are forming their own representative bodies called soviets.
What were Lenin's goals in encouraging the Russian Revolution?
Lenin promised to end the war, to redistribute all land to the peasants, to transfer factories and industries from capitalists to committees of workers, and to transfer the power of the government to soviets. He believed all this could only be achieved with violent means.
Describe the Bolsheviks rise to power
Germany sent Lenin back to Russia with the hope of sowing discontent in Russia. On November 6, 1917, the Bolsheviks seized the Winter Palace in Petrograd, which was the seat of the Provisional government. This was what became known as the "October Revolution." Lenin turned over the power of the Provisional government to the Congress of Soviets, but actually kept control for himself.
What factors helped the Communists win the Russian civil war?
Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany so Russia could exit the war. Russia had to give up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces. The Reds (Communist Bolsheviks) were able to defeat the Whites (pro-Czarists) because they were more disciplined and united, with a revolutionary zeal to inspire them to victory. The Bolsheviks also instituted what was known as the Red Terror to root out those working against the Revolution.
How did Russian withdrawal from the war as a result of the October Revolution affect WWI?
It left Allied forces demoralized until the Americans entered the war.
What new problems came up in the years after WWI?
Provisions in the peace settlements at the end of the war, the failure of the U.S. to join the League of Nations, and the French issue of reparations on Germany.
Which nation was most affected by economic crisis during the Great Depression?
Germany suffered the largest decline in production after WWI, leading to high inflation, unemployment, and economic crisis.
What factors incited the global Great Depression?
Overproduction of food and goods in the U.S.as well as unsound banking practices in the U.S. that led to an overexpansion of credit which couldn't be paid back that eventually led to a collapse of the U.S. stock market.
How did the Great Depression contribute to the growth of fascist and totalitarian governments in Europe?
The Great Depression caused people in Europe to question their new failing governments following the end of WWI. This questioning would eventually lead to the rise of dictators.
What were two major reasons the Great Depression affected the United States, the only major country to make it out of WWI without debt?
Many American investors had invested money in helping to rebuild Germany. With the U.S. stock market booming in the 1920's, many investors pulled their stocks from Germany to invest in the U.S. market. When the U.S. market crashed, all remaining funds were withdrawn from German and other European markets, which led to slower trade patterns, decreased industrial production, and high unemployment rates. (international financial crisis and stock market crash)
Paris Peace Conference (US/Woodrow Wilson)
-create lasting peace, establish League of Nations, get rid of secret deals and alliances, and not place harsh punishment on Germany.
-League of Nations was created, but US Congress voted against joining.
Germany was harshly punished, contrary to Wilson's hopes.
Paris Peace Conference (FRANCE/ Georges Clemenceau)
- Punish Germany, get money (reparations) to pay for damages to country, provide buffer zone via Rhineland to prevent future aggression.
- Germany heavily punished loses colonies and Alsace-Lorraine is returned to France.
Heavy reparations are required.
Germany must reduce military and give Rhineland as buffer zone.
France gets many of its demands.
Paris Peace Conference (UK/ David Lloyd George)
- Punish Germany while not destroying them financially. Present future war by limiting German military.
Yes, but the harsh punishment of Germany finanically will damage the economy.
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