Unit 11: Industrial Revolution, Nationalism, & Imperialism
Terms in this set (42)
What were some changes brought on by the Agricultural Revolution in England?
More food from better agricultural practices with less labor (frees up rural labor)
More people moved to the cities because of less farm jobs and the enclosing of common lands.
Describe the 2 major reasons that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain.
-Natural Resources in water for water power and transportation. Also abundant supplies of coal and iron ore.
-Britain had many colonies to sell products to
-Agricultural rev led to population increase and growth of towns. Brings needed workers to factories.
-Britain was wealthy enough to provide money or capital to fund businesses. Many entrepreneurs start new businesses.
What is urbanization?
Population increase in towns and cities as people move from rural areas to urban centers.
How did urbanization impact the Industrial Revolution?
More workers for cities and more need for manufactured goods.
Describe the cottage system in the textile industry and how it led to the invention of the factory system.
-a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
-New inventions in cloth production, such as the spinning jenny and the water-powered loom made cottage system less efficient, so workers were used in factories to use these new machines.
Give examples of transportation improvements in the early 1800
Explain the impact of steam power and improved iron on the Industrial Revolution.
Railroads and steamboats aided transportation of workers and materials, and let business sell their products to wider markets (not just local). Higher quality iron was needed to build train cars, railroads, and machinery
What are 3 characteristics of factory work?
- Long hours: 12-16 hour shifts, 6 days a week
- No job security or minimum wage
- Unsafe and dangerous working conditions
- Children and women working for less pay. After Factory Act of 1933, children had to be 9 or older to work.
A political, social, and economic system characterized by by promoting the interests of a particular nation. Particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance,or full sovereignty, over the group homeland.
What factors help build nationalism within a geographic area?
-attempts by reactionaries like Charles X to restrict liberties
-people wishing to be independent of foreign powers that had taken over their lands
-desire for a greater voice in government in the form of universal suffrage (voting right) and Parliamentary representation
How did the Industrial Revolution influence the rise of nationalism?
The increasing numbers of laborers and bourgeoisie (middle class) demanding greater participation in both the government and the economy coupled with a resentment of control by foreign governments gave rise to nationalism throughout Europe and Latin America
What problems do you think could arise from building of a strong sense of nationalism?
Nationalism can lead to such a belief in the superiority of one's nation that wars and suppression of rights may result
Who is Simon Bolivar?
He was a member of the Creole elite who started a revolution for Venezuelan independence from Spain in 1810
What effect did he (Simon Bolivar) have on Latin American Revolutions?
He inspired other South American colonies to assert their independence; over the next 14 years, he and Jose de San Martin of Argentina had successfully liberated Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia;
What were causes of Latin American Revolutions?
-The new political ideas of the American Revolution began to have an influence on Creoles (descendants of Europeans who had permanently settled in the Americas) and Mestizos (part European, part Native Americans)
-Creoles especially disliked Spanish and Portuguese domination of trade
Why did Latin American countries continue to experience economic dependence after achieving political independence?
Because of the tremendous loss of life, livestock and property gaining independence, the new Latin American nations became economically dependent on western nations again
Describe the assembly line and mass production:
a new manufacturing method created by Henry Ford in 1913. It increased manufacturing efficiency by allowing for the mass production of goods.
the father of capitalism (free enterprise system). Believed supply and demand should regulate the economy rather than the government. Introduced the concept of laissez-faire (hands off of the economy by the government)
the father of Marxism (communism). Believed a bloody revolution would occur between the bourgeoisie (the have's) and the proletariat (the have not's). This class struggle would result the proletariat winning and creating a classless society.
Analyze the difference between capitalism and communism.
capitalism=competition and communism = cooperation
Capitalism allows for private ownership of business or property while communism allows no private ownership of business. Communism was created by Karl Marx to correct the inequalities and social discrepancies that capitalism developed. Communism erases social classes and private ownership.
What do socialism and communism have in common?
Communism is a radical form of socialism. Both rely heavily on government regulation of the economy and involvement in industry. Both stress a cooperative environment where the government provides to those in need. Both blamed capitalism for the horrible conditions of early factory life.
What are the means of production?
The means of production are the input and facilities involved in producing goods for a profit. Think factories, machines, and tools in an industrial society. The three economic systems we studied have differing opinions on who should control or own these means.
How did the growth of unions impact workers during the Industrial Revolution?
Trade unions gave workers a united voice and allowed them to push for reforms in the workplace such as better working conditions, higher wages, workers comp, child labor laws, sick leave, and a 40 hour workweek to name a few. If demands are met, the union will call on workers to strike.
What is Feminism?
the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.
Describe the special problems created for women because of factory work
The industrial revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. Women made less money than men. Working class women worked low paying jobs with long hours to help support their families. Because of long hours at work, working-class women were not able to spend much time at home caring for their families. Children not working in factories stayed home to care for family members, since both parents worked long hours.
How did the working-class family change in the late 1800's?
Higher-paying jobs in heavy industry made it possible for working-class families to depend on the income of husbands alone. This allowed women to stay home to take care of family.
What were some reasons governments promoted public education?
-Industrialization required training and skilled workers.
-Giving more people the right to vote created a need for more educated voters.
-Primary schools instilled patriotism in students
Compare the lives of the working class and middle class during the I.R.
-Middle Class: Men worked, Women stayed home, had fewer children, more leisure time, more time devoted to child care
-Working Class: Men worked, Women worked, more children, little leisure time, little time for child care
How did the Industrial Revolution encourage imperialism?
The Industrial Revolution encouraged imperialism because it created a need for raw materials and markets
What factors led nations to increase their search for colonies after 1880?
Westernization, or the spread of Western European culture
Social Darwinists believed that in the struggle between nations, the fit are victorious. Racism is the belief that race determines traits and capabilities. Racists erroneously believe that particular races are superior or inferior.
How did national competition lead to colonization in Southeast Asia?
Needed a source of industrial raw materials and a market for Western Manufactured goods
To gain advantage over political rivalries
Explain the difference between indirect and direct rule as it relates to imperialism in SE Asia.
Indirect Rule- a colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status. Example: The Dutch East India Company
Direct Rule- colonial government in which local elites were REMOVED from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from a colonizing country: Example: Great Britain administered Burma directly through its colonial government in India
Why did Europeans colonize Africa, and how were they able to do so?
Wanted raw goods and material to increased imperialism.
Divided land among each other during the Berlin Conference
Used either indirect or direct rule to administer rule
Describe the purpose and events of the Berlin Conference.
European Powers met in in Berlin Germany during 1884-1885
Purpose: to set rules for establishing colonies in Africa
No African representatives were present
These borders have had lasting effects, tearing apart unified societies or placing rival groups under the same colonial government. The borders increased division instead of a national unity.
What was the Boer War?
A conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in which the Boers and the British fought for control of territory in South Africa.
As Britain's power increased in India in the 19th century, who were the Indian natives the British East India Company hired to aid its soldiers and forts?
What led to the Sepoy mutiny?
A growing distrust of the British after a rumor that troop's new rifle cartridge was greased with cow and pig fat.
Cow is sacred to Hindus and the pig is taboo to Muslims.
A group of sepoys in Meerut refused to load their rifles with their cartridges. The British charged them with mutiny, publicly humiliated them, and put them in prison. This lead to a revolt of sepoys
What effects of the Great Rebellion in India?
Although the rebellion failed, it helped fuel Indian nationalism. The rebellion marked the first significant attempt by the people of South Asia to throw off British rule. It also caused the British Parliament to transfer the power from the East India Trading Company directly to the British Government
What were positive benefits of direct British rule on Indian locals?
More modern infrastructure (roads, railroads)
More modern economic systems (though still largely benefitting Great Britain rather than locals, some locals were able to profit from new economic systems and supports.
List 2 European justifications for imperialism
Westernizing the natives
What did the US want from newly independent Latin American countries?
Invest in order to extend power. Dollar diplomacy - seeks to strengthen the power of a country or effect its purposes in foreign relations by the use of its financial resources.
As investments grew so did US military involvement to protect the investments.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
The Monroe Doctrine (statement made by President James Monroe) that warned European powers that any attempts to establish colonies in the Americas would be seen as hostile by the United States.
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