James K. Polk
president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
1846. Settled dispute of Oregon boundary dispute, stemming from the Treaty of 1818 in which both U.S. and British settlers were granted free navigation of the territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
1848 ends the Mexican American War. For $15 Million the US acquired Texas territory north of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California. US territory increased by 1/3 as a result of the treaty.
term used by antislavery advocates to describe conspiracy of southern politicians and northern business owners. Planned to expand the bounds of slavery into new territory
proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery
The state has the political power to govern itself rather than the federal government
The Election of 1848
Lewis Cass (Democrat), Zachary Taylor (Whig), Martin Van Buren (Free-Soil Party). Zachary Taylor won.
Formed in 1847 from antislavery Whigs and supporters of the Liberty Party- 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Election of 1852
BETWEEN: Franklin Pierce (Democrat) and Winfield Scott; RESULTS: WHIG party splits over nomination Fillmore v. Scott; Antislavery North vs. Southern Whigs that disliked Winfield Scott; Doomed Whig Party - Democratic party united under Pierce! Leads to formation of sectional parties instead of national parties. VICTOR: Franklin Pierce (Democrat)
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty