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SBU GEO 103 Final Review
Terms in this set (237)
The basins of the Great Lakes were carved by ice during glacial advances (T/F)
Dolphins belong to the mammal order Carnivora (T/F)
The Old World monkeys and the New World monkeys ultimately gave rise to the hominids (T/F)
Mountain valleys that are U-shaped are most likely the result of erosion by a valley glacier (T/F)
Conifers are examples of angiosperms (T/F)
All saurischian dinosaurs are herbivores (T/F)
The monotremes nurse their young for extended periods in pouches (T/F)
The higher abundance of O 16 in glacial ice occurs because it is the lighter oxygen isotope; it evaporates
more easily than O 18 and then is precipitated as snow (T/F)
Continental rifting has not occurred on Earth since the Triassic (T/F)
According to the Milankovitch theory, the total heat received from the sun varies very little, but the
interaction of orbit and tilt changes is enough to cause climate changes (T/F)
East Africa is a modern analogy of how continents break apart. (T/F)
Canada is a good place to see geological features that were formed by erosion associated with glaciation (T/F)
. All anthropoids have bipedal locomotion (T/F)
Antecedent streams are those streams that were in place before the present topography developed (T/F)
The continental United States, excluding Alaska, is not presently bordered by any examples of subduction
What has been the trend in human evolution since the appearance of the Cro-Magnons?
Evolution has become cultural rather than biological.
Vascular plants having flowers and seeds; the flowering plants
Warm-blooded; characterized by a body temperature that is internally regulated
Anthropoids evolved from ________ sometime during the Late Eocene
The time period for the Little Ice Age
from approximately A.D. 1500 into the early 19th century.
Conifers have persisted since the Late Paleozoic, and now occupy this habitat
high elevations and latitudes
The approximate absolute age of the Mesozoic - Cenozoic boundary
66 million years
Most of the existing orders of mammals were present by the
The mammal-like reptiles at the end of the Paleozoic were
Primates are difficult to characterize as an order because
they lack the strong specializations found in most other mammalian orders.
An evolutionary trend in hoofed animals in which the premolars become more like molars, giving the
animals a continuous series of grinding teeth:
These gymnosperms made their appearance in the Triassic and became very widespread:
Any animal that eats tender shoots, twigs, and leaves:
Which of the following corals were present in Mesozoic reef communities?
The ancestor of all living carnivores:
All of these types of faults are common in the Himalaya Mountains except
A term referring to locomotion on all four limbs as in dogs and horses:
Dinosaurs are examples of
This feature is one of the pieces of evidence that indicates that the boundary between the Cretaceous
Period and the Tertiary was marked by the impact of a large meteorite (bolide):
The Panthalassa Ocean eventually became the present-day _________ Ocean.
The Mesozoic is known as the Age of Reptiles because
reptiles were highly diverse and filled many niches
The increased elevation of some areas of Scandinavia is the result of
A dark-light couplet of sedimentary laminations representing an annual deposit in a glacial lake:
The carnivores have specialized shearing teeth called
A glacier covering at least 50,000 km2 and unconfined by topography:
An example of a continental mass on which there is a continental glacier:
Any lake that formed in nonglaciated areas during the Pleistocene as a result of increased precipitation
and reduced evaporation rates during that time:
An example of a transform plate margin:
San Andreas Faul
Any of the cold-blooded vertebrates such as amphibians and reptiles; animals that depend on external
heat to regulate body temperature
Formation of Basin and Range mountains is a result of
Because of the breakup of Pangaea during the Mesozoic, different faunas emerged partially because of the
lack of ________
The concept of Earth's crust "floating" on the denser underlying mantle:
Abbreviated term for Hominoidea, the superfamily that includes apes and humans:
A pair of specialized shearing teeth in members of the mammal order Carnivora:
The distinction between the ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs is based on the
arrangement of the pelvis
Any animal that eats low-growing vegetation, especially grasses:
The present-day formation of Himalaya Mountains is most like the formation of the _______
Mountains in the Late Paleozoic.
In terms of eating style, a giraffe is an example of a
An example of a continental-continental convergent plate margin:
The most recent extensional event to affect the Cordillera of North America was
the Basin and Range deformation
All of the following are prosimians, except
A race of Homo sapiens that lived mostly in Europe from 35,000 to 10,000 years ago:
Most Archean fossils represent eukaryotic organisms (T/F)
Only eukaryotic cells can reproduce sexually (T/F)
During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Appalachian range was eroded into a low-lying erosional surface (T/F)
The Middle to Late Devonian was a time of major reef building worldwide. (T/F)
. Fish first evolved in a marine environment and later adapted to non-marine habitats (T/F)
The Acadian orogeny was accompanied by the closing of the Iapetus Ocean. (T/F)
Rocks that were deformed in the Grenville orogeny can be seen on the west coast of North America (T/F)
Erosion of the Precambrian igneous and metamorphic core of the uplifted Ancestral Rockies produced
thick fans of arkose and conglomerate (T/F)
The early fish were jawless and armored, and inhabited shallow marine waters (T/F)
The Cordilleran orogeny took place in the western part of North America (T/F)
The collision of the continents of Avalonia and Baltica was responsible for the Caledonian orogeny. (T/F)
Crinoids are examples of early plants (T/F)
Sandstone-carbonate-shale assemblages are characteristic of the late continental rifting phase of the
Wilson cycle, when passive margins develop. (T/F)
Lobe-finned fish are important in the fossil record because it is believed that these fish eventually gave
rise to amphibians (T/F)
The pelycosaurs are the ancestral base for all later reptile groups (T/F)
Mountain-building activity in the present-day Rocky Mountains occurred during this phase of the
The oldest known vertebrates; a group of "bony-skinned" fish characterized by bony armor but no jaws
Fish with limbs containing a fleshy shaft and a series of articulating bones
A conglomerate that is formed by glacial processes:
A metamorphic type of coal containing up to 98 percent carbon
During the Late Paleozoic, the southern part of Pangaea was distinguished by _______ climate
Sedimentary rocks made up of alternating thin layers of chert and iron minerals, mostly the iron oxides
hematite and magnetite; these deposits are ore minerals from which iron is extracted:
banded iron formations (BIFs)
. If you discover the fossil remains of archaeocyathids in a rock outcrop, you can be certain that the rocks
are from the
A group of seedless, vascular plants that lived in coal-forming swamps in the Late Carboniferous and
Permian and are represented in the present-day biosphere by horsetails:
Which of the following does not apply to trilobites?
abundant in modern oceans
The evolution of jaws played an important role in the evolution of fish because it allowed them to
diversify feeding styles, increase oxygen consumption, increase food consumption
This worldwide ocean surrounded the late Paleozoic supercontinent
The three time periods of the Mesozoic are, from oldest to youngest
Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
What role do roots play in the adaptation of plants to terrestrial environments?
collect water, collect water, provide support
Elongated area of deformation generally at the margins of a craton
A horse is an example of a/an
Conical marine organisms that lived during the Cambrian and were the earliest builders of reef-like
A supercontinent that existed in the Paleozoic
The presumed causes for transgressions and regressions of shallow seas during the Paleozoic were
glaciation and tectonic events
On the North American continent, how many cratonic sequences have been recognized?
A group of small, lizard-like reptiles among which are the earliest known reptiles
Fish are examples of _________.
A flowerless, seed-bearing plant; a plant whose seeds are lodged in exposed positions on cones or on other
Erosion of the Acadian highland resulted in deposition of
Relatively stable, immobile parts of continents that form the foundation on which Phanerozoic
sediments were deposited
This biological process may have resulted in the development of eukaryotic organisms from primitive
Which of the following is not one of the basic feeding groups?
An adjective used to describe a shallow sea that covers a large part of a continent:
Examine the paleogeographic map above. Which Mesozoic period does this map represent?
Animals that can live for extended periods on land, but must return to water-based environments to
The age of the Burgess Shale is
Which of the following was critical for the adaptation of reptiles to terrestrial ecosystems?
the amniote egg
Each of the major continents at the beginning of the Paleozoic can be divided into two major
a craton and a mobile belt
The Gulf of Mexico began to form as North America separated from
. Periods of extensive world-wide glaciation are commonly accompanied by _________ sea level
Fish with limbs containing a fleshy shaft and a series of articulating bones; one of two main groups of
The most abundant rock type deposited during the Kaskaskian sequence was
A sequence of cyclically repeated sedimentary rocks resulting from alternating periods of marine and
nonmarine deposition; commonly contains a coal bed:
During the Permian Period, the Permian Basin in west Texas was distinguished by
The interior of the North American continent was flooded by the Middle Jurassic
Long scratches formed when a glacier moves over a land surface
. The sail-like fin of the pelycosaur may have served as all of the following except
a means of locomotion
Which of the following was not a mobile belt affecting the North American continent during the Early
Slices of ancient oceanic crust, tectonically emplaced onto the continents, are called
The iron in banded iron formations is found in this form:
Alluvial fans commonly occur in the marine environment
The fossil record contains a sequence from simple to more complex organisms through time.
Homologous organs probably indicate descent with modifications from a common ancestor
Lithostratigraphic units are defined solely on the basis of fossil assemblages
Some greenstone belts may represent back-arc marginal basins.
A marine transgression is a period of lower sea level.
The Precambrian represents less than 50 percent of Earth history
The species Homo sapiens is an example of a prokaryotic organism
Glacial deposits tend to be very well sorted
Darwin knew of Mendel's work with genetics when he formulated his theory of natural selection
Conglomerate deposits are most common in the deep marine environment
Sometimes the best adaptations for a population may be small size, or the ability to hide
Small fragments of what were once larger organisms are called trace fossils
The phrase "survival of the fittest" has often been used to describe the theory of natural selection.
Soft-bodied organisms are never preserved in the fossil record
A sedimentary deposit that contains fragments of oyster shells is most likely
Cell division that results in cells containing only one chromosome from each pair is called
A population of similar individuals that in nature interbreed and produce fertile offspring:
Demonstration of the physical continuity of stratigraphic units over an area; matching up time-equivalent events in different areas:
Graded bedding forms when
turbidity currents deposit first coarse sediment then fine sediment.
A general term referring to all biostratigraphic units such as range zones and concurrent range zones:
The process used to demonstrate that two rock strata are equivalent is called
New genetic characteristics can be added to prokaryotic organisms by
The origin of amphibians from fish is an example of
Darwin's theory of natural selection was based on all of the following except
Mendel's work on genetics.
The degree to which detrital particles have had their sharp edges and corners smoothed off by abrasion:
Cell division resulting in two cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell:
The development of larger and darker varieties of house sparrows among northern populations of the species is an example of
In evolution, the organisms that win are
able to stay adapted to their environment.
Deposits made directly by a glacier consist of
poorly sorted sediments.
Surfaces that separate individual strata from one another
The development of a large variety of mammal species from a small shrew-like mammal that existed in the Mesozoic is an example of
An erosional surface that separates tilted strata below from flat lying strata above is called a/an
Large-scale cross-beds (greater than 10 ft. in height) commonly indicate a ___________ sedimentary environment.
Any indication of prehistoric organic activity such as tracks, trails, burrows, and nests (e.g., worm tubes); does not include any remains of body parts:
A break or gap in the geologic record resulting from erosion or nondeposition or both; the surface separating younger from older rocks where a break in the geologic record is present:
Cell division yielding sex cells, sperm and eggs in animals, and pollen and ovules in plants, in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half:
You are hiking in eastern Canada over a surface composed of very old igneous and metamorphic rocks. You are most likely walking across a/an
The two tectonic models postulated for greenstone belt evolution are
intracontinental rift, back-arc marginal basin.
Sand-rich sediments are especially common in ________ marine environments
Most continents contain large central areas in which very ancient rocks are exposed. These areas are called
Which of the following is not one of the levels of the Linnaean Classification Scheme?
The churning of sediments by organisms that burrow through it:
Which of the following is not a component of the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection?
All organisms can knowingly select their genetic direction.
A deposit of sediment where a stream or river enters a lake or the ocean:
An example of an evaporite deposit:
Outwash deposits are most commonly associated with these depositional environments:
The marine environment closest to the beach:
a. continental shelf
One important conclusion of Mendel's genetic studies with pea plants is
genes controlling traits do not blend during inheritance, but are transmitted as discrete entities.
You have the most characteristics in common with members of your own
The nuclei of continental masses were formed by
All of the following are features of greenstone belts except
key index fossil assemblages.
The branch of geology that focuses on understanding layered rocks is called
The fundamental unit in the hierarchy of time units; part of geologic time during which the rocks of a system were deposited:
Fluvial is a term referring to
river activity and river deposits.
On the Origin of the Species was written by
A group of closely related species:
A long sand body more or less parallel with a shoreline but separated from it by a lagoon:
Till deposits are associated with
Elongate sand bodies paralleling a shoreline but separated from the shoreline by a lagoon are
Most scientists did not support Wegener's theory of continental drift because his mechanism could not satisfactorily explain continental movement
Marble is an example of a metamorphic rock
The oceanic crust is less dense than the continental crust.
The discovery of radioactivity destroyed Lord Kelvin's argument for a relatively young Earth no older than 400 million years
Convergent plate boundaries are characterized by formation of new oceanic crust.
After four half-lives, 1/8 of the radioactive parent isotope atoms will remain.
The oceans are part of the Earth's hydrosphere
An electron is the smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristics of an element
The Earth probably formed by the accretion of small bodies called planetesimals.
Relative dating of geologic events was not possible before the discovery of radioactivity in the late 19th century.
Coal is an example of a detrital sedimentary rock
The principle of superposition can be used to determine the relative ages of sedimentary rocks
Lava is molten rock below the Earth's surface.
Neptunism was the concept that all rocks formed in a specific order by precipitation from a worldwide ocean.
Converging plate boundaries are often sites of metamorphism and igneous activity
A type of metamorphic rock that results from the heating and compression of coal
Isotopes of the same element have
different numbers of neutrons, but the same number of protons
States that sediment extends laterally in all directions until it thins and pinches out, or terminates, against the edge of the depositional basin
principle of lateral continuity
You are hiking in the mountains and you come across a cliff in which a vein of igneous rock is cutting across the layers of sedimentary rock in the area. The igneous rock is ___________ than the sedimentary rock
The oldest oceanic crust is slightly less than _________ years old.
The outer core is
The half-life of carbon 14 is _________ years
An explanation for some natural phenomenon that is testable and is supported by a large body of evidence (e.g., plate tectonics):
A naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, having characteristic physical properties and a narrowly defined chemical composition
New oceanic crust is formed at
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus
The oceans are part of the Earth's
After three half-lives, a radioactive element will have _________ of its original parent atoms
The first fossil considered as evidence for the hypothesis of continental drift was
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus:
Localized (and commonly thought to be stationary) zone of melting below the lithosphere:
Which of the following rock types can be metamorphosed
a. igneous rocks
b. sedimentary rocks
c. metamorphic rocks
The sentence "The Cretaceous Period ended 66 million years ago" is an example of
The Andes Mountains are associated with
a convergent plate boundary
A type of metamorphic rock that results from the recrystallization of limestone or dolostone
The study of paleomagnetism is possible because
d. the magnetic minerals align toward the north magnetic pole at the Curie Point.
A type of metamorphic rock that results from the recrystallization of quartz sandstone
The Japan Trench represents
an oceanic-oceanic convergent plate margin
The study of the origin and evolution of Earth, its continents, oceans, atmosphere, and life
Proposed the concept of natural selection
Geologists resolved the apparent polar wandering paradox by concluding that
the magnetic poles have remained in one location and each of the continents has moved
The ocean crust is composed mostly of
Metamorphism taking place adjacent to a body of magma (a pluton) or beneath a lava flow from heat and chemically active fluids:
Any rock altered in the solid state from pre-existing rocks by any combination of heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids
Granite is an example of a coarse-grained _________ rock
The first person to suggest that all of the continents had originally been joined together as the supercontinent Pangaea was
Alfred Wegener, 1912
Saturn is an example of a __________ planet
An episode of mountain building involving deformation, usually accompanied by igneous activity, metamorphism, and crustal thickening
You observe a dark colored igneous rock with very fine crystals that are only visible under magnification. What can you say about this rock?
It cooled quickly on Earth's surface
The principle asserting that processes operating in the present world can be used to interpret events of the past; the present is the key to the past
Alfred Wegener's name for a Late Paleozoic supercontinent made up of most of Earth's landmasses
Mars is an example of a _________ planet
Part of the upper mantle that behaves as a plastic and flows
When an atom becomes positively charged, it is called a/an
The East African Rift is an example of a _________ plate boundary
Assigning a specific date to a rock, which is measured in years before present, is known as
This unique group of plant fossils represents important evidence supporting plate tectonics.
This archbishop calculated the date of creation of the Earth based upon Old Testament genealogy
A mechanism accounting for differential survival and reproduction among members of a species; survival of the fittest
The Himalaya Mountains are an example of
d. a continental-continental convergent plate boundary.
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