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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
HIST307 Final Ids
Terms in this set (42)
a conference in September of 1938 in Germany where England and France decide that Sudentland can be given to Hitler for the purpose of appeasement. As a result, the Jews who lived there moved to Czechoslovakia.
Secret nonaggression pact
August 1939 Stalin and Hitler signed a pact before the outbreak of WWII in which they agreed that Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union would not attack each other for 10 years. Hitler used this pact to invade Poland unopposed. The pact also detailed how Hitler and Stalin would divide Europe up after the war. The pact dissolved in 1941 when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union.
Battle of Stalingrad
feb 1943 battle that was the turning point for the Russians
War on the Eastern Front
term that refers to the Nazis invading the Soviet Union in June 1941
socialist Jewish group that was established in Poland and was concerned with Jewish national culture in the 1930s
political party for the religious Jews of Poland in the 1930s. Shows that the Jews in Poland were diverse and had different factions amongst themselves.
1908-1974 Nazi (ethnic German) from Czechoslovakia who got a factory given to him by Poland. he saves the Jews from death in Polish death camps.
formed Oyneg Shabbes which was an organization that recorded everything going on in the ghetto and then burried the records in milk cans in the ground. ⅔ were found after the war! wrote a diary that's been published. The archives were discovered in the mid 1940s. This was the only study that's ever been done on the effects of starvation on the human body bc typically would be unethical but they recorded this info.
an organization that recorded everything going on in the ghetto and then buried the records in milk cans in the ground. ⅔ were found after the war! This was the only study that's ever been done on the effects of starvation on the human body bc typically would be unethical but they recorded this info.
German Jew/intellectual/prolific writer. She accused Jews in the Jewish council for helping with the Holocaust
political scientist/ German Jew/ professor/ studied the Holocaust. Using Nazi evidence he argued that the Jewish council were partially responsible for Jewish deportation to death camps
by sept/ nov 1939 ___________________ were appointed to be in charge of every ghetto in Poland-- they were responsible for doing all the Nazis orders, housing, and a census. Usually the councils were comprised of 24-36 people (all men, middle aged, higher education, knew German, business people). Many were corrupt and relied on nepotism. The jewish councils saw themselves as helping the Jews to survive in the ghettos by providing social welfare, municipal services, administrative machinery, and employment.
head of the Jewish council in Warsaw. He was born in 1880 so he was 60 years old when he was appointed to be the head of the Jewish council in Warsaw. He did not see himself as a ghetto dictator, he worked with everyone and obeyed orders but did not go out of his way to cooperate with the Nazis. There was resentment for him since he was in charge of choosing Jews for deportations. In 1942, when the deportations from the Warsaw ghetto began, he was told that he had to choose 6,000 Jews to be deported every day and they took his wife hostage so that he was blackmailed into doing it. He committed suicide when he was told that he also had to include the children in the people who are deported (he now knew that it meant they would be sent to their deaths).
Rescue through work
strategy utilized by the Jewish councils in the Polish ghettos; they thought that if the Jews had workshops that the Germans benefited from, this would lead to survival -- they hoped this would buy time while the Russians and Americans defeat the Germans
head of the Jewish Council in the Lodz Ghetto; he really believed in the rescue through work strategy and therefore was a very controversial figure. He was born i n1877 and was 63 in 1940 when he became the head of the Jewish Council in Lodz. He had been an insurance agent and helped orphaned children in the Jewish community prior to the war. He became like a dictator in the Lodz ghetto who saw himself as the protector of the Jews in Lodz. He had postage stamps with his face on it! He made factories in the ghetto so that the ghetto could be independent.
Sacrifice some to save the rest
Rumkowski thought that giving up the sick, children, and elderly in the Lodz ghetto would ensure that the rest would live (this did not end up being true but Lodz was the last ghetto in Poland that was still around in 1943 when every other ghetto had been liquidated)
Resettlement in the east
euphemism that the Nazis used when talking about the Holocaust-- sending the Jews from the ghettos to the death camps. Fall of 1941 is when this was est. This was seen as an alternative to the messy Russian mobile killing units.
means transfer center; where the Jews were taken to a big square where they got on a train that took them to the death camps
head of the Jewish police in the Wilno ghetto in Poland in September of 1941. He was 38 years old (young!!) studied law, was a high school teacher, and a Zionist. He used the rescue through work strategy and distributed work certificates. He kept a well organized ghetto with fewer health problems. At first he's sympathetic to resistance org's but then turns on them.
between April - January 1942 40,000 Jews were killed in gas vans
SS units that were created to go into the Soviet Union and kill communist commissars (they did not initially kill Jews bc of their Jewish identity) in 1941-2. Each one of these was comprised of 500-600 men and come from various Nazi units. For the first month of invasion, only communists were killed.
The Pale of the Settlement
where the Jews lived in Western Russia comprising 10% of the population prior to 1941-2
German military occupation of Ukraine, in which at the end of July 1941 at Himmler's orders all Jewish men are rounded up and shot. By august, Nazis kill all Jews in the USSR (men, women, and children).
Germans who were recruited to the army but were too old for combat (35+ yo) and were an essential part of the mobile killing units operation in the USSR. They were ordinary Germans, not necessarily Nazis!
1906 German born man who grew up in Austria; in 1932 he joins the Nazi party and rises in the ranks to become an SS officer. He coordinated the "Resettlement in the East" aka the deportation of Jews to the death camps. He escaped to Argentina after the war, but was captured by the Israeli secret service and was the first and only person to be executed by Israel.
part of the Reich Main Office for Security, this operation was named after Reinhard and was a codeword for the operation to send the Jews of Poland to their deaths in death camps. This was headed by Odilo Globocnic because he came up with the death camps and gassing ideas. 1941-43
in the spring and summer of 1939 this campaign was created by the Nazis in order to secretly kill disabled individuals as part of the aryanization process of Nazi Germany
Arrow Cross Party
Hungarian Fascist Party that is installed as a collaborationist party that helped to deport the Jews to death camps in Poland in 1944.
Lived from 1912-1945; A Swede hired by the Americans to save the Jews of Budapest. He handed Swedish passports to Jews, put Budapest Jews in safe houses, and took Jews off of trains headed for the death camps. He successfully saved 50,000 Jews. Wallenberg became an honorary citizen of the United States because of his ability to save so many Jews.
The War of Refugees Board
established in 1944 in the United States by FDR, the purpose of this board was to aid civilian victims of Nazi Germany and the Axis Powers.
Romanian concentration camps where they let Jews die of starvation in disease in summer of 1942. Antonescu established this because he didn't want to be part of the final solution bc he was worried about international public opinion and didn't want to be punished at the end of the war.
1920-1944 he was the head of Hungary and Horthy halted deportations bc he realized that the Allies are going to win the war, so the Budapest Jews are not deported. Budapest Jews are not deported but they are shot or shoved into the river
prime minister of Italy from 1922-43 who did not listen to Hitler's pressure to deport the Jews and instead helped hide them in Italy (Italy was an allied country w the Axis powers in the War)
prime minister of Romania from 1904-1944; enabled the citizens of Romania to help kill Jews themselves instead of deporting the Romanian Jews to death camps in Poland
France was divided into Vicci France that was independent of the Nazis and Nazi occupied France. Vicci ran most of the bureaucratic processes in France-- they were v antisemitic for diff reasons than the Nazis. The Vicci incarcerated their Jews in their own concentration camps and then they were sent to Auschwitz. However, Vicci policy was to only deport foreign Jews (NOT French Jews).
Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, birkenau, Majdanek, Chelmno
lived from 1900-1947. Himmler told him to make Auschwitz a technologically innovative murder factory so he used the anti rodent poison called Zyklon B. Sig: key planer in the final solution!!
units of Jews who had to haul Jews who were dead out of the gas chambers, remove gold from their teeth, and prepare their bodies for disposal. They were gassed every few weeks too.
refers to the sorting part of the concentration camps which were glamorized as one of the best jobs to have bc you could maybe steal something as you sorted.
what you were called if you lost the will to live in a concentration camp
Warsaw ghetto uprising
on April 19, 1943 some Jews form a resistance organization called the ZOB under Morecai Anielewisz's leadership. The ZOB was comprised of 500 people with handmade bombs, hand grenades, and a few rifles. They stood on balconies and their strategy was to have a good defensive position with which to attack the Nazis from. On passover the Nazis enter the ghetto and the ZOB force the Nazis to retreat twice but eventually the Jews are forced out and the ghetto was burned down. Some of the ZOB fighters leave the ghetto to join Jewish resistance groups but are discovered and killed.
Jewish Fighter organization that led the Warsaw ghetto uprising on April 19, 1943
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