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Organized shipborne commerce on the Nile River!

Mediterranean traders

First cartographers

Cretans and Phoenicians

First regular ocean traders


Among the first to use celestial navigation


This type of navigation relies on using the stars to determine ones relative position on earth


Invented the chronometer

Stick Charts

Earliest form of navigational or oceanographic map made of bamboo and shells


Integrated science studying the sea that including biology, chemistry, physics, and geology


Earth is about ___________ water.


Of the water found on earth, about _________ is found in oceans.


This was the name given by the Vikings to Newfoundland.


The invention of the __________ and central rudder, and improvements in sail design were contributions made by the Chinese.


This Viking is thought to have been the first to land on North America.


First to calculate the circumference of the Earth

Prince Henry

Set up a centre for marine science and navigation in mid 1450s


_____________ was the first to sail around the world.


John Harrison invented the ________________

Benjamin Franklin

Published the first chart of any current


First to orient charts by placing east on the right hand side and north at the top

Matthew Maury

Father of physical oceanography


The US Exploring Expedition explored ______________


This expedition started the science of oceanography


This expedition in 1968 found evidence to support sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.

Echo Sounder

This is used to map the deep ocean floor.


Technological advances in food storage and ship design in the 1900s made these expeditions possible.


Make charts of the sea


This person's estimate of the circumference of the earth was used by Christopher Columbus


European who New Zealand


European who mapped the Great Barrier Reef


In early history, the people who voyaged in order to show off their dynasty and riches were the ______________


The process (or result) of applying the scientific method to the ocean, its surroundings and the life within it is called _________________


This type of oceanographer studies the aspects of the ocean such as tides, currents and ocean circulation


An educated guess made to explain a phenomenon is called a ________________


The vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of the earth's surface is called the _______________

Sir James Ross

Took the earliest depth measurements

Marine Geologists

study sea floor sediments, plate tectonics, history of the earth and atmosphere

Chemical Oceanographers

study chemical composition of the oceans and their relationships to geology and biology.


explored the Mediterranean and Atlantic-noticed a current running in and out. named it "okeanos" ocean was derived from this.

First Library of Alexandria

contained written info on items of interest to seafarers. All ships that entered the harbor were recorded and a copy of records was kept there.


during the dark ages they wet on periodic raids. ships were so fast they could sail up rivers


discovered the New world by accident. The native Americans had lived there for at least 11,000 years.


studied ship's logs with wind and temp data. assembled it into wind and current charts & issued them to sailors for giving him their logs when they returned.

HMS Challenger

Charles Thomson and John Murray led first scientific oceanographic voyage. 4 yrs. thought they was no life below 1,800ft. able to sample down to 26,850ft. found 4,717 new species. took 15 yrs. to produce the "Challenger Report" 50 volume report.

Marine Engineers

study how to build ocean going to vessels, harbors, oil platforms, etc.


regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running parallel to the equator


regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running north and south and converging at the poles

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