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46 terms

Oceanography 621A - History

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Egyptians
Organized shipborne commerce on the Nile River!
Mediterranean traders
First cartographers
Cretans and Phoenicians
First regular ocean traders
Polynesians
Among the first to use celestial navigation
Celestial
This type of navigation relies on using the stars to determine ones relative position on earth
Harrison
Invented the chronometer
Stick Charts
Earliest form of navigational or oceanographic map made of bamboo and shells
Oceanography
Integrated science studying the sea that including biology, chemistry, physics, and geology
71%
Earth is about ___________ water.
97%
Of the water found on earth, about _________ is found in oceans.
Vinland
This was the name given by the Vikings to Newfoundland.
Compass
The invention of the __________ and central rudder, and improvements in sail design were contributions made by the Chinese.
Leif
This Viking is thought to have been the first to land on North America.
Eratosthenes
First to calculate the circumference of the Earth
Prince Henry
Set up a centre for marine science and navigation in mid 1450s
Magellan
_____________ was the first to sail around the world.
Chronometer
John Harrison invented the ________________
Benjamin Franklin
Published the first chart of any current
Ptolemy
First to orient charts by placing east on the right hand side and north at the top
Matthew Maury
Father of physical oceanography
Antartica
The US Exploring Expedition explored ______________
Challenger
This expedition started the science of oceanography
Glomar
This expedition in 1968 found evidence to support sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
Echo Sounder
This is used to map the deep ocean floor.
polar
Technological advances in food storage and ship design in the 1900s made these expeditions possible.
Cartographers
Make charts of the sea
Ptolemy
This person's estimate of the circumference of the earth was used by Christopher Columbus
Cook
European who New Zealand
Cook
European who mapped the Great Barrier Reef
Chinese
In early history, the people who voyaged in order to show off their dynasty and riches were the ______________
Oceanography
The process (or result) of applying the scientific method to the ocean, its surroundings and the life within it is called _________________
Physical
This type of oceanographer studies the aspects of the ocean such as tides, currents and ocean circulation
Hypothesis
An educated guess made to explain a phenomenon is called a ________________
Ocean
The vast body of saline water that occupies the depressions of the earth's surface is called the _______________
Sir James Ross
Took the earliest depth measurements
Marine Geologists
study sea floor sediments, plate tectonics, history of the earth and atmosphere
Chemical Oceanographers
study chemical composition of the oceans and their relationships to geology and biology.
Greeks
explored the Mediterranean and Atlantic-noticed a current running in and out. named it "okeanos" ocean was derived from this.
First Library of Alexandria
contained written info on items of interest to seafarers. All ships that entered the harbor were recorded and a copy of records was kept there.
Vikings
during the dark ages they wet on periodic raids. ships were so fast they could sail up rivers
Columbus
discovered the New world by accident. The native Americans had lived there for at least 11,000 years.
Maury
studied ship's logs with wind and temp data. assembled it into wind and current charts & issued them to sailors for giving him their logs when they returned.
HMS Challenger
Charles Thomson and John Murray led first scientific oceanographic voyage. 4 yrs. thought they was no life below 1,800ft. able to sample down to 26,850ft. found 4,717 new species. took 15 yrs. to produce the "Challenger Report" 50 volume report.
Marine Engineers
study how to build ocean going to vessels, harbors, oil platforms, etc.
Latitude
regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running parallel to the equator
Longitude
regularly spaced imaginary lines on Earth's surface running north and south and converging at the poles