Grade 10 Biology Test
Terms in this set (70)
is a group of organisms with similar characteristics at any level of biological classification
invertebrates, soft body; segmented body, no legs
invertebrate, with soft body, body has head and foot, body is covered in mantle that can secrete a hard shell
invertebrates, with hard skeleton; two body parts, eight legs
invertebrates, with hard exoskeleton, three body parts, six legs
vertebrates, have bony skeleton, cold-blooded, gills, scales and fins
vertebrates, cold-blooded, live in water as larvae, and on land/water as adults, no scales
vertebrates, cold-blooded, lungs, scales
vertebrates, with hollow bones; warm-blooded, lay eggs, feathers
vertebrates, warm-blooded, with hair; live birth and produce milk
make their own food through photosynthesis
absorb food from host, most bodies made of network of tubes called hyphae, reproduce by spores
Simpson's Diversity Index
is a measure of diversity which takes into account the number of species present, as well as the relative abundance of each species
variety of living things on Earth or in a particular habitat or ecosystem
called Reduction- division
In Meiosis, four daughter cells produced that are _________________-.
Meiosis occurs in the _______________ in human males
Meiosis occurs in the _______________ in human females
Meiosis occurs in human _____________ that produce gametes.
______________________ is the process of duplicating a chromosome
Replicated copies of chromosomes are called _______________________.
Sister chromatids are held together at __________________.
same genes, different alleles
same genes, same alleles
Early Prophase I
Homologs pair; crossing over occurs
Late Prophase I
chromosomes condense, spindle forms, nuclear envelope fragments.
Pieces of chromosomes or genes are exchanged; produces Genetic recombination in the offspring
homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the equator of the cell
homologs separate and move to opposite poles; sister chromatids remain
attached at their centromeres.
In meiosis, nuclear envelopes reassemble, spindle disappears, cytokinesis divides cell into two.
produces gametes with one copy of each chromosome and thus one copy of each gene.
In meisosis, nuclear envelope fragments and spindle forms
In Meiosis, chromosomes align along the equator of cell
sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
In meiosis, nuclear envelope assembles; chromosomes decondense; spindle disappears, cytokinesis divides cell into two, forming four haploid cells.
occurs in the testes; two divisions produce 4 spermatids; spermatids mature into sperm
occurs in the ovaries, two divisions produce 3 polar bodies that die and 1 egg, polar bodies die because of unequal division of cytoplasm
immature egg cell
number of daughter cells in meiosis
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The instructions for making cell parts are encoded in the ____________________.
The DNA of prokaryotes (bacteria) is one, ____________________ attached to the inside of the cell membrane
10 and 50
Most eukaryotes have between ___________________ chromosomes in their body cells
Human body cells have ____________________ chromosomes.
Chromosomes can't be seen when cells aren't dividing and are called ____________________.
DNA is tightly coiled around proteins called ___________________.
Duplicated chromosomes are called ___________________ & are held together by the centromere.
A picture of the chromosomes from a human cell arranged in pairs by size
_______________________ involves a single cell dividing to make 2 new, identical daughter cells.
_______________________ involves two cells (egg & sperm) joining to make a new cell (zygote) that is NOT identical to the original cells
Prokaryotes such as bacteria divide into 2 identical cells by the process of _____________________.
G1 stage of interphase
Cells mature by making more cytoplasm & organelles; cell carries on its normal metabolic activities
Synthesis stage of interphase
DNA is copied or replicated
G2 stage of interphase
Occurs after DNA has been copied; all cell structures needed for division are made (e.g. centrioles); both organelles & proteins are synthesized
also called karyokinesis; only occurs in eukaryotes
Early Prophase (Mitosis)
Chromatin in nucleus condenses to form visible chromosomes, mitotic spindle forms from fibers in cytoskeleton or centrioles (animal)
Late Prophase (Mitosis)
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus are broken down; chromosomes continue condensing & are clearly visible; spindle fibers called kinetochores attach to the centromere of each chromosome
The mitotic spindle form from the microtubules in plants and ________________ in animal cells.
____________________ extend from one pole of the cell to the opposite pole
_____________________ extend from the pole to the centromere of the chromosome to which they attach
__________________ are short fibers radiating from centrioles.
Chromosomes, attached to the kinetochore fibers, move to the center of the cell; chromosomes are now lined up at the equator
Sister chromatids at opposite poles; spindle disassembles; nuclear envelope forms around each set of sister chromatids; nucleolus reappears; CYTOKINESIS occurs
Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell by kinetochore fibers
Means division of the cytoplasm; division of cell into two, identical halves called daughter cells
In cytokinesis of plant cells, _________________ forms at the equator to divide cell
In cytokinesis of animal cells, _____________________ forms to split cell
In eukaryotic cell division, cells are ________________.
___________________ are special proteins that increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell
If mitosis is not controlled, unlimited cell division occurs causing ___________________
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