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Motivation is defined by psychologists as:

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

Rigid patterns of behavior characteristic of a species and developed without practice are called:


A need refers to:

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

Instinctive behavior is:


An aroused or activated stat that is often triggered by physiological need is called a.


Homeostasis refers to:

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:


Which of the following is clearly not an example of an incentive?

lack of bodily fluids

Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

arousal theory

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:

food and drink.

Research on physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:

hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs has been removed

Increases in insulin increase hunger indirectly by:

increasing PYY levels

Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed lab rat. This will likely:

cause the rat to begin eating

Increases in _____ increase hunger; whereas increases in _____ decrease hunger.

insulin; blood glucose

When a rat's blood sugar level decreases, the ________ hypothalamus releases the hunger-triggering
hormone ________.

lateral; orexin

Mice are most likely to eat less when they experience ________ levels of _________.

elevated; leptin

The secretion of ghrelin ____________ appetite, and the secretion of PYY ___________ appetite.

stimulates; suppresses

The set point is:

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

The level of serotonin in the brain is ______________ by a diet high in ___________.

increased; carbohydrates

Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by:

an obsessive fear of becoming obese

Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who:

are high achieving and protective

Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed _______ satisfaction with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of serious eating disorders.

decreasing; increasing

In most mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when:

estrogen levels are highest

The drive-reduction theory of motivation is more applicable to hunger than to sex because, unlike hunger, sexual desire is not a direct response to:

a physiological need

Simon LeVay discovered that a cluster of neural cells located in the _____ was ______ in homosexual men than in heterosexual men.

hypothalamus; smaller

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are genetically predisposed to:

form close enduring friendships with fellow humans

When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their _______ needs.


Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he
wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best
illustrate the concept of:

achievement motivation

Effective managers often demonstrate ____________ levels of task leadership and __________ levels of social leadership.


Participative management is to ______________ as directive management is to ___________.

Theory Y; Theory X

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