National Boards SS AYA
Terms in this set (37)
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
One vote for each State, regardless of size. Congress powerless to lay and collect taxes or duties. Congress powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce. No executive to enforce acts of Congress. No national court system. Amendment only with consent of all States. A 9/13 majority required to pass laws. Articles only a "firm league of friendship."
Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. Constituiton
Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.
Slavery and the Constitution
Southern states would not approve Constitution if it interfered with slavery
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
The idea that the American experience was different or unique from others, and therefore America had a unique or special role in the world, such as a "city upon a hill."
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Civil War (1861-1865)
total war; Union is perpetual v. liberty before Union; began w/ bombardment of Fort Sumter; Lee surrendered at Appotomax; 600k casualties; legacy expanded federal power and destroyed agrarian south
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy
Gross National Product - the sum of all goods and services produced in a nation in a year
the act of buyers and sellers freely and willingly engaging in market transactions
The nature and degree of competition among firms operating in the same industry.
the use of government spending and revenue collection to influence the economy
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
circular flow diagram
a visual model of the economy that shows how dollars flow through markets among households and firms
a study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Classical Economic Theory
The view that an economy will self-correct from periods of economic shock if left alone. AKA "laissez-faire"
Government spending during depression periods and high taxes during periods of boom. (Tax and Spend) These principles were supported by FDR's "Brain Trust".
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government. Reagan
fair trade movement
an alternative method of international trade which promotes environmentalism, fair wages, alleviation of global poverty and a fair price for growers
a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently
Levels of Government
federal, state, local
Principles of Government
federalism, republicanism, checks and balances, popular sovereignty, individual rights, limited government, separation of powers,
Rule of Law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
following established legal procedures
the organization of earth's surface into distinct areas that are viewed as different from other areas
GIS (geographic information system)
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date
Power of a government to take private property for public use.
Economic effects of war
When a country goes to war-it vastly increases economic output; government finances the mass production of war related materials--men go to war and women go into the workforce
Political Effects of the Reformation
Thirty Years War, civil war between religions, loss of Catholic Church's power, loss of papal power (pope's power), Henry VIII gains power by head of own church, new foreign policies between countries of different religions
A geographic effect of the Irish potato famine was
The movement of Irish emigrants to many countries
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