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scom 240/241 ppt slides (peaks-mease, bsumek, ball)
Terms in this set (96)
not necessarily supported by research or a system of known general principles. cultural biases can result in "wrong" common sense"
generalization made about the ways things work
a communication theory
a set of systematic, informed hunches about the way things work
the assumption that truth is singular and accessible through sensory observation. committed to discovering cause and effect relationships. social scientific
the linguistic work of assigning meaning or value to communicative texts. multiple meanings or truths are possible. humanistic.
singular, unbiased truth. deterministic. universal laws.
multiple realities. free will. emancipation.
idols of the tribe
fallacies due to human nature
idols of the cave
individual prejudices we bring with us because of our own backgrounds and culture
idols of the marketplace
Bacon's term for error that results when one accepts the traditional meanings of the words used to describe things.
idols of the theater
fictional worlds created by untested beliefs
collection of problems, understanding of causes, symbols, solutions, and other elements of public problems to come to the attention of the public, news media, and government
mass media have ability to transfer the salience (importance) of issues on their new agenda to the public agenda
the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems. telling us WHAT or what not to think about
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is presented can significantly affect decisions and judgments. HOW we think about something
offers a synthesis between the sophists and plato. rhetoric is not all bad. rhetoric and truth can be compatible.
rhetoric (for aristotle)
an ability, in each particular case, to observe the available means of persuasion
3 main arenas in athens for public speaking
forensic speaking. issues of the past. questions of fact. judges and juries who decide what is justice.
epideictic speaking. issues of present. questions of blame or praise. audiences moved by values.
deliberative speaking. issues of the future. questions of expedience. attempts to influence public policy.
knowledge of topics
forms of proof
1. inartistic (found, external evidence)
2. artistic (invented)
the study of the origin, nature, method, and limits of knowledge
The assumption that behavior is caused by heredity and environment
data collected through direct observation
liberation from any form of political, economic, racial, religious, or sexual oppression; empowerment
Rule of parsimony (Occam's razor)
given two plausible explanations for the same event, we should accept the simpler version
The requirement that a scientific theory must be stated in a way that it can be tested and disproved if it is indeed wrong
grant others that occur in your construction the same autonomy you practice constructing them
include yourself as a constituent of your own construction
scholars who use theory to reveal unjust communication practices that create or perpetuate an imbalance of power
a research method that describes and interprets the characteristics of any text
a method of participant observation designed to help a researcher experience a cultures complex web of meaning
the study of information processing, feedback, and control in communication systems
the art of using all available means of persuasion, focusing on lines of argument, organization of ideas, language use, and delivery in public speaking
the study of verbal and nonverbal signs that can stand for something else, and how their interpretation, impacts
arbitrary words and nonverbal signs that bear no natural connection with the things they describe; their meaning is learned within a given culture
the idea that language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language
Entertainment businesses that reproduce the dominant ideology of a culture and distract people from recognizing unjust distribution of power within society; e.g., film, television, music, and advertising.
intentional analysis of everyday experience from the standpoint of the person who is living it; explores the possibility of understanding the experience of self and others
An applied approach to knowledge; the philosophy that true understanding of an idea or situation has practical implications for action.
one who believes that our thoughts, self-concept, and society are created through communication
the ongoing use of language and gestures in anticipation of how the other will react; a conversation
an inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse actions, and anticipate reactions before; self-talk
taking the role of the other
the process of mentally imagining that you are someone else who is viewing you
the mental self-image that results from taking the role of the other; the objective self; me
the subjective self; the spontaneous driving force that fosters all that is novel, unpredictable, and unorganized in the self
the objective self; the image of self seen when one takes the role of the other
the composite mental image a person has of his or her self based on societal expectations and responses
a method of adopting the stance of an ignorant yet interested visitor who carefully notes what people say and do in order to discover how they interpret their world
the tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated
the self created by the way we respond to others
the reminder that we are responsible for taking care of each other; i am my brothers keeper
Face of the "Other"
A human signpost that points to our ethical obligation to care for the other before we care for self.
the study of people's use of space as a special elaboration of culture
the hypothetical outer boundary of intimate space; a breach by an uninvited other occasions fight or flight
the perceived positive or negative value assigned to a breach of expectations, regardless of who the violator is
communicator reward valence
the sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future
interaction adaption theory
a systematic analysis of how people adjust their approach when another's behavior doesn't align with what's needed, anticipated, or preferred
a person's initial stance toward an interaction as determined by a blend of personal requirements, expectations, and desires (RED)
Social Penetration Theory
the process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self-disclosure and other forms of vulnerability
an inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse actions, and anticipate reactions before responding; self-talk
minimax principle of human behavior
people seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs
the assumption that people want both privacy and intimacy in their social relationships; they experience a tension between disclosure and withdrawal
the dynamic and unceasing struggle between discourses about interpersonal relationships
a set of propositions that cohere around a given object of meaning
the central building blocks of meaning-making, where utterances are linked to competing discourses already heard as well as those yet to be spoken
two or more discourses compete for dominance over meaning
discursive struggles played out within a relationship
discursive struggles played out between a couple and their community
a set of discursive struggles regarding independence versus interdependence; freedom versus intimacy
a set of discursive struggles regarding routine versus spontaneity; traditional versus novel
a set of discursive struggles regarding transparency versus secrecy; privacy versus disclosure
voicing different discourses at different times
voicing different discourses at the same time
switching back and forth between two discursive struggles, voicing one and then the other.
a compartmentalizing tactic by which different discourses speak to different aspects of the relationship
a fleeting sense of unity through a profound respect for disparate voices in dialogue
the belief that communication creates, sustains, and alters relationships and the social world; social construction
the unpredictable, unfinalizable, indeterminate nature of personal relationships
an obligation to critique dominant voices, especially those that suppress opposing viewpoints; a responsibility to advocate for those who are muted
judging actions solely on the basis of their beneficial or harmful outcomes
discovering all possible means of persuasion
External evidence that the speaker doesn't create. (the rhetoric)
Internal proofs that contain logical (logos), ethical (ethos), or emotional (pathos) appeals
an incomplete version of a formal deductive syllogism that is created by leaving out a premise already accepted by the audience or not drawing the obvious conclusion; a reasonable argument (the rhetoric)
canons of rhetoric
the principle divisions of the art of persuasion established by ancient rhetoricians - invention, arrangement, style, delivery, and memory (the rhetoric)
a rhetorical scholar who carefully analyzes the language of speakers and authors (dramatism)
words as intentional action, giving life to particular motives and goals (dramatism)
a technique of analysis of language and thought as basically modes of action rather than as means of conveying information (dramatism)
perspective of incongruity
providing shocking new insight by linking two dissonant words (dramatism)
the common ground between speaker and audience; overlap of physical characteristics, talents, occupation, friends, experiences, personality, beliefs, and attitudes; consubstantiation (dramatism)
a tool critics can use to discern the motives of a speaker or writer by labeling five key elements of the human drama: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose
the relative importance of any two terms of the pentad as determined by their relationship (dramatism)
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