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Physics Ch. 33-35
Don't forget to know all the symbols(battery, connecting wire, open switch, closed switch, resistance)!!!!! Also how to draw a series and parallel circuit!!!
Terms in this set (88)
a force field that fills the space around every electric charge or group of charges
electrical potential energy
energy a charge has due to its location in an electric field
electrical potential energy per coulomb at a location in an electric field; measured in volts and often called voltage
the SI unit of electric potential
a. electric potential; measured in volts b. potential difference; measured in volts
a device used to store charge in a circuit
objects not in contact can exert forces on eachother
What is meant by the expression "action at a distance"?
there's actual contact between the object and field at all times
How does the concept of a field eliminate the idea of action at a distance?
both exert forces
How are gravitational and an electric field similar?
it has both magnitude and direction
Why is an electric field considered a vector quantity?
in the direction of positive test charges
Consider electric field lines, which way do the vectors point?
closer lines represent a stronger force
How is the strength of an electric field indicated with field lines?
How do the electric field lines appear when the field has the same strength at all points in a region?
electrons from the lightning repel each other and spread out evenly over the metal surface and the elecetric field inside the car cancels to zero
Why are occupants inside a car struck by lightning safe?
What is the size of the electric field inside any charged conductor?
No. It's only attractive in nature
Can gravity be shielded?
Yes. They are attractive and repulsive forces
Can electric fields be shielded?
the higher the lift,the more gravitational potential energy it has
How does lifting an object affect the object's gravitational potential energy?
if you move like charges together you increase potential energy
How can the electric potential energy of a charged particle in an electric field be increased?
it is changed to kinetic energy
What will happen to the electric potential energy of a charged particle in an electric field when the particle is released and free to move?
difference in electric potential (voltage) between two points
The flow of electric charge, measured in Amperes
SI unit of electric current. 1 coulomb per second = 1 _____
Something that provides a potential difference
resistance of a material to the flow of the current through it, measured in ohms
property of a material that has infinite conductivity at very low temps, so that charge flows through without resistance
SI unit of electric resistance. 1 ____ is the resistance of a device that draws a current of one ampere when a voltage of one volt is impressed across it.
the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across it, and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit
electric current whose flow of charge is always in one direction
electric current that repeatedly reverses direction, twice each cycle. usually at 60 cycles per second or hertz in north america, or 50 hertz elsewhere
an electronic device that restricts current to flow in a single direction in an electric circuit
Rate at which electric energy is converted into another form such as mechanical energy, heat, or light. Electric Power = Current * Voltage. Unit is WATTS
Does charge flow through a circuit or into a circuit
Heat flows from ____ temperatures to ____ temperatures
a potential difference
What condition is necessary for the flow of charge?
it has to be from high temperature to low temperatures
What condition is necessary for the flow of heat?
Does voltage flow through a circuit, or is voltage established across a circuit?
Greater in a long, thin wire
Is electric resistance greater in a short fat wire or a long thin wire?
amount of energy consumed in 1 hour at the rate of 1 kilowatt
Current passing through the body
What is electric shock caused by
lower skin resistance
How does wetness affect the resistance of your body?
every part of the bird's body is at the same potential as the wire
Why is it that a bird can perch without harm on a high-voltage wire?
1 ampere= 1 volt/ohm
the equation for Ohm's law
If voltage is decreased, how will current be affected?
If resistance is decreased, how will current be affected?
Serves as a ground connection
What is the purpose of the third prong in a household electric plug?
What kind of current is produced by a battery?
What kind of current is produced by a generator?
What is the voltage that power companies deliver to home outlets?
220 v is their standard voltage
Why would you need a special adapter for a plug in europe?
Where do the electrons originate that flow in a typical electric circuit?
Is it the electrons or energy that flows from an outlet to a lamp?
electric power= (current)(voltage)
1 Watt= (1 ampere)(1 volt)
the equation for power
an electrical device that provides a complete path for electrical current to flow
term applies to portions of an electric circuit that are connected in a row so that the current that goes through one must go through all of them
term applies to portions of an electric circuit that are connected at two points and provide alternate points for the current between those two points
a circuit in which devices are arranged so that charge flows through each in turn
each electric device is connected to the same two points of the circuit
a diagram that describes an electric circuit, using special symbols to represent different devices in the circuit
No, they are in the conducting materials themselves
Are all the electrons flowing in a circuit provided by the battery?
if there are gaps then the electrons cannot flow
Why must there be no gaps in an electric circuit for it to carry current?
in series- devices form a single pathway for electron flow
in parallel- devices form branches; each is a separate path for the flow of electrons
What is the main difference between a series circuit and a parallel circuit?
If three lamps are connected in series to a 6-volt battery, how many volts are impressed across each lamp?
If on of the three lamps blows out when connected in series, what happens to the current in the other two?
6 volts because voltage is the same all throughout a parallel circuit
If three lamps are connected in parallel to a 6-volt battery, how many volts are impressed across each lamp?
current continues to flow
If on of the three lamps blows out when connected in parallel, what happens to the current in the other two?
In which case will there be more current in each of the three lamps--- if they are connected in series or in parallel?
In which case will there be more voltage across each lamp?
lines carrying an unsafe amount of current are overloaded
What does it mean when you say that lines in a home are overloaded?
to prevent overloading
What is the function of a fuse or circuit breaker in a circuit?
more pathways are provided for current, lowering the resistance and too much current will produce heat
Why will too many electrical devices operating at one time often blow a fuse or trip a circuit breaker?
its a circuit that has a path of much less resistance and therefore the current only takes that path
What is meant by a short circuit?
negative, wire, positive
Electrons flow from the _______ end of the battery, through a _____ to the light bulb, through the filament of the bulb then out to a wire to the _______ side of the battery
the current stops
If the switch is open, what happens?
dry cells, wet cells, generator
three examples of voltage sources?
the number of electrons are the same
Why doesn't a current carrying wire have a net electric charge?
What affect does wet skin have on the amount of current that can go through your body?
If more work is done to an object, does it have more or less potential energy?
True/False: metals can be used to shield some electrical components
When a charge is moved opposite the direction of its natural attraction, is the potential energy in the charge increased or decreased?
Voltage is also called _________ force.
no, they can never cross
Can field lines ever cross?
True/False Gravitational forces repel.
True/False Voltages, pressure, push, and electric potential all have the same meaning.
Current and voltage are _______ proportional.
As the number of parallel branches is increased the overall resistance of the circuit is ________.
By convention, the test charge used to determine the charge on an unknown object is ________
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