the digits in the measurement that are known with certainty plus one digit that is uncertain #Sig. fig. = all certain numbers + one uncertain number
those at the beginning of a number are NEVER significant. ex. 0.00035 has 2 sign. #
those between nonzero digits are ALWAYS significant ex. 3.0689 has 5 significant figures
those at the end of the a number, are significant only if a decimal point is present in the number. 35.00 has four sig.fig. 0.05060 has four sig.fig. 86,000. has 5 sig.fig.
Trailing zeros (no decimal point)
are not significant if the number lacks a decimal point. 6,000,000 has one sig. fig. 70050 has four sig. fig.
Significant figure: multiplication and division
- is the same as the number of significant figures in the measurement that contains the fewest significant figures. - In multiplication and division significant figures are counted.
- the answer has no more digits to the right of the decimal point than are found in the measurement with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point. - In addition and subtraction, decimal places are counted.
- With scientific notation...only significant figures appear in the coefficient. Ex. 86 ---> 2 Sig. Figs. ----> 8.6 x 10¹ Ex. 86.0 --->3 sig. figs. ---->8.60 x10¹
the ratio of the mass of an object to the volume occupied by that object
density = mass/volume
Kevlin & Celsius
K = C =273 C = K - 273
Farrenheit & Celsius
F = 9/5(C) + 32 C = 5/9(F -32)
the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories
1 calorie = 4.184 joules
the quantity of heat energy, in calories, necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius.