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Final Exam REVIEW 2018-2019
Terms in this set (133)
The amount of movement of the particles that make up a substance. Also called "heat"
Not really a thing. Just a way of saying less thermal/heat energy
Is heat matter?
No, it does not have atoms, mass, or volume
Hotter matter to colder matter
The direction or way that thermal energy/heat moves
When thermal energy/heat STOPS moving, when the substances are the SAME temperature
Definition of conduction
Transfer of thermal energy due to direct contact. The thermal energy is PASSED directly from molecule to molecule. No matter moves its position.
Definition of convection
Transfer of thermal energy through currents in a fluid. The thermal energy is CARRIED by moving molecules of liquid or gas. Matter moves.
Definition of radiation
Thermal energy transfer via electromagnetic waves, the thermal energy "JUMPS" from one substance to another without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Shirt being pressed by a hot iron
Conduction because the shirt and the iron are in direct contact. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the iron to the molecules of the shirt.
CLASSIFY: Feeling the heat of a campfire while sitting far away from it
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the fire to you via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Heated goo (liquid) in a lava lamps rises while the cooler goo (liquid) sinks in a cool swirly pattern
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the moving goo (liquid) molecules.
CLASSIFY: A cat sits on a shelf above the stove to stay warm.
CONVECTION because the air molecules are warmed by the stove, rise to where the cat is sitting and then sink back down as they cool.
CLASSIFY: On a hot, sunny August day, your Dad gets a sunburn out by the pool
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to your Dad via EM waves, without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: Using pot holders to pull a pan out of the hot oven
CONDUCTION because the pot holders slow/prevent the thermal energy transfer due to direct contact of your hand to the pan, thermal energy is passed more slowly from the molecules of the pan to the pot holder to your hand.
CLASSIFY: A pool heater causes the water near the surface of the pool to be warmer on a cloudy day
CONVECTION because the thermal energy is carried by the water molecules that rise toward the surface of the pool as they are heated and sink back to the bottom of the pool as they cool.
CLASSIFY: A huge rock is warmed by the Sun
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the Sun to the rock via EM waves without the need for matter.
CLASSIFY: A piece of hair is curled by a hot curling iron
CONDUCTION because there is thermal energy transfer due to direct contact from the curling iron to the hair. The thermal energy is passed from the molecules of the curling iron to the molecules of the hair.
CLASSIFY: The vinyl siding on a house is melted/warped by a house fire across the street
RADIATION because the thermal energy "jumps" from the one house to the other via EM waves without the need for matter.
Definition of an insulator
Type of matter that blocks or reduces the flow of heat, electricity, or sound.
These are specific examples of insulating materials. They reduce or block the flow of heat energy.
Definition of conductor
Type of matter that allows heat, sound or electricity to pass through it easily.
These are specific kinds of conductors because they allow heat to pass through easily.
Why metal objects feel "cold" to us when we touch them with our hand
The thermal energy is transferred from our hand (the hotter matter) to the metal object (colder matter) easily since the metal is a conductor.
When thermal energy increases
The speed of the atoms/molecules of a substances increases.
When water vapor condenses into liquid water, then freezes into solid ice
Particles slow down in speed and get closer together in arrangement.
One POSITIVE reason that groups used aluminium foil in their penguin shelter
Aluminum foil can help to reflect some of the radiation from the heat lamps due to its shiny, reflective surface.
One possible NEGATIVE aspect to groups using aluminium foil in their penguin shelter
Aluminium is a metal and a conductor, so it could have let thermal energy pass into the shelter fairly easily, especially when used on the bottom!
Relationship (link) between thermal energy and temperature
As thermal energy increases, the molecules/atoms move more quickly, and the temperature of an object increases.
Purpose of the materials testing BEFORE designing/building (why we did it first!)
To see which materials were good or poor insulators and make an informed decision of which materials to use in the group penguin shelter.
Requirements/constraints (rules) were necessary in the save the penguins project....
Make save the penguins FAIR for all groups, to make REALISTIC shelters for a real world problem, and to model the engineering design process (the way engineers plan and build things in the real world!)
a rate that measures the distance an object travels in a certain amount of time
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one form/object to another
energy of moving objects
stored energy of object due to their POSITION
the rate at which an object moves in a certain direction (speed AND direction)
frame of reference
motion is relative; it is always described in relation to a reference point
a push or pull that can change an object's motion
unit to measure force; one of these units is equal to the force that would move a 1 kg mass one meter per second every second
a change to an object's speed (faster or slower) or direction over time
units used to represent acceleration; read as "meters per second squared"
the overall or total force on an object
when the net force is zero and there is no change in an object's motion
causes an object to have a change in its motion ("leftover" force that "wins")
a force that opposes the motion of any objects that touch
air resistance (fluid friction)
the opposing force that results from the contact between AIR and objects moving through it
matter's resistance to a change in motion
(rise/run) OR (change in y/change in x)
formula to calculate slope of a line
rate of change of a line; steepness of a line
the TOTAL distance a trip takes in the TOTAL time it takes to complete the trip
as mass increases, KE increases; as mass decreases, KE decreases
relationship between mass and KE
as velocity increases, KE increases; as velocity decreases, KE decreases
relationship between velocity and kinetic energy
gravitational potential energy
stored energy due to a position off of the Earth's surface (height)
as mass increases, PE increases; as mass decreases, PE decreases
relationship between mass and potential energy
Sir Isaac Newton
scientist who studied forces and motion and came up with 3 laws of motion
abbreviation for the unit newton (used for forces)
tool used to measure force
net force = 2 N to the right (unbalanced forces)
net force = 50 N to the left (unbalanced forces)
net force = 0 N (forces are balanced)
Newton's 1st law of motion
an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force
Newton's 2nd law of motion
the greater the mass of an object, the more force is required to move the object; the more force applied to the object, the more quickly it will change its motion (accelerate)
F = ma
formula to show relationship between force, mass and acceleration (Newton's 2nd Law)
Newton's 3rd law of motion
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; forces act in pairs
moving energy can be passed on to another object, but is never destroyed; KE is transferred
d = rt
formula for speed (the rate of distance traveled over time)
PE decreases as KE increases
Relationship between potential and kinetic energy as a pendulum is lifted to a height and then swings down
the study of Earth, how it formed, and the materials that make it up
the remains or traces of an ancient living thing preserved in rock
one of the large, rigid pieces of rock that make up Earth's crust
the gradual movement of the continents across the Earth's surface through geological time
the outermost rocky layer of Earth; rests on top of the mantle, contains fossil evidence
the innermost layer of Earth
the layer inside Earth between the crust and the core, moves in convection currents
the cycling of molten material in Earth's mantle. This is what is "pushing" the tectonic plates around on Earth's surface.
the PROCESS by which magma creates new ocean crust at the mid-ocean ridges, expanding the sea bottom
an underwater mountain chain the circles the Earth, extending through the middle of most oceans (at a divergent boundary)
law of superposition
the idea that in layers of the rock, the top layer is youngest and bottom layer is oldest
a theory/topic of study that explains the formation and movement of Earth's plates
a mountain that forms when magma reaches the surface and comes out as lava
super-continent proposed by Wegener when continents were all joined together as one
how new crust is created
divergent boundary (sea-floor spreading) at a mid-ocean ridge; the rocks closest to the ridge are the youngest
when old ocean plates sink into the mantle; this action between plates "recycles" or destroys old crust
divergent plate boundary
when two plates move APART from each other; new crust can be formed here
convergent plate boundary
when two plates move TOWARDS each other; mountains can be formed here; old crust can be recycled here
transform plate boundary
when two plates SLIDE PAST each other in opposite directions; earthquakes can often form here
edges of plate boundaries/fault lines (especially transform boundaries)
where earthquakes are most common to occur on Earth
term to describe the sudden slip of the plates and the accompanying ground shaking
examples of slow changes on Earth
glaciers; plate tectonics; weathering/erosion; river creating a canyon
examples of fast changes on Earth
landslides; earthquakes; volcanoes; crazy weather
age of the Earth
around 4.5 - 4.6 billion years old
when humans appear on Earth
very near to the present day; only about 200,000 years ago
layers of glacial ice
these provide evidence of what was in earth's atmosphere long ago (like amounts of gases, volcanic dust)
how did oxygen get into our atmosphere?
simple organisms started PHOTOSYNTHESIS
what are some ways we know what Earth was like long ago
lots of fossil evidence buried in layers of rocks give us clues about Earth's past
how can we predict the future
by looking at patterns in the Earth's past
Pangaea split apart
More recently than some dinosaurs existed on Earth, within the last 200 million years.
Method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock
Radiometric (Radioactive) Dating
the process of measuring the absolute age of geologic material by measuring the concentrations of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
The Continents Fit Like Puzzle Pieces
Evidence: Matching coastlines. This is one piece of evidence that the continents were once together as Pangaea but have slowly drifted apart
Tropical Fossils Found Deep Down in Currently Cold Climates
Evidence: Fossilized ferns in Antarctica. This is evidence that tells us that this continent has probably shifted over time from a warm place (like the equator) to a colder location on Earth.
Himalayan mountains grow about 1 cm per year
This is evidence that two plates are still converging every moment, pushing material upwards as a mountain.
What ALL waves carry in a repeating pattern!
Example of SOUND waves being REFLECTED
Situation: Your teacher's voice hits the classroom wall and bounces (echos) back
Example of LIGHT waves being REFLECTED
Situation: White light hits a mirror and bounces back
Example of WATER waves being REFLECTED
Situation: Energy moving through a lake hits the side of a boat and bounces off
Example of SOUND waves being ABSORBED
Situation: During a concert, the band's music is taken into the curtains surrounding the stage and does not escape
Example of LIGHT waves being ABSORBED
Situation: A black t-shirt takes in all the colors of light and does not let any escape
Example of WATER waves being ABSORBED
Situation: Under water, energy is taken in by seaweed and does not escape
Example of SOUND waves being TRANSMITTED
Situation: In the hallway, you can hear a classmate's laugh pass through the closed classroom door
Example of LIGHT waves being TRANSMITTED
Situation: Sunlight is able to stream/pass through a transparent window
Example of WATER waves being TRANSMITTED
Situation: Energy is passed through a large tsunami wave when an earthquake hits the ocean
SOURCE of wave energy
The place/action where the energy/vibration (sound, light, etc.) BEGINS
Receptor/destination of energy
The point where the energy (sound waves, light waves, etc) is "sensed" by seeing, hearing, feeling, etc.
The matter/material that the wave energy travels through
The distance from a crest to the next crest or a trough to the next trough. One repetition/cycle of the wave.
The TIME it takes one wavelength to complete, or how OFTEN a wave happens
The height from a wave's resting point (middle) to the top (a crest) or the bottom (a trough), the ENERGY in the wave
Relationship between amplitude and energy
More energy = higher amplitude; less energy = lower amplitude
the loudness (volume) of a sound
When AMPLITUDE of a sound wave is increased, we hear it as...
The small part (less than 1%) of the electromagnetic spectrum that human eyes can detect
Less than 1%
the percentage of the light (electromagnetic) spectrum that human eyes can sense
The highest point reached from rest on a wave
The lowest point reached from rest on a wave
Something that causes a reaction in an organism, like light or sound
The way a living thing ACTS or BEHAVES when it receives a stimulus
The ENTIRE range of visible and invisible LIGHT
Direction that waves travel from a source
Outward in all directions
Vibrations of molecules (often air)
How SOUND energy is passed from source to destination
A continuously varying wave
A wave is sampled into chunks and assigned values (digits)
The position in which the matter would be if there was no disturbance moving through it, also called "at rest".
Sound waves, water waves, earthquake waves are all examples
When sound energy hits a surface and REFLECTS back to be sensed again
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