Microbiology & Biotechnology - Honors
Terms in this set (71)
Not technically living, don't have all 8 characteristics, are parasites. Can't reproduce, evolve, no metabolism. don't grow, don't respond to environment. Have genetic material
Protein coat that surrounds viral genetic material
Viruses only infect thing they are designed to. Also cell specific. Can't infect other cells/hosts.
How viruses gain access to host cell
Spikes on the virus are "keys". Spikes on the cell are "locks" if they match the virus can gain access to the cell.
Virus that infects bacteria
Quick cycle, instant death to host cell by reproducing inside and then bursting out of the host cell (lysis). Attachment > Entry > Biosynthesis > Maturation > Release
Virus attaches to host cell
Virus inserts DNA into host cell
Parts of new viruses made inside the cell
Parts of new viruses assembled inside the cell
Baby viruses burst out of the host cell
Has period of dormancy where the virus is inactive, may stay this way forever. Attachment > Entry > Integration > Replication
Viral DNA becomes part of the host DNA
Host cell DNA copies and reproduces, each new DNA is a prophage
The viral DNA integrated into the normal DNA
Have no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, smaller and less complex. Only have ribosomes, genetic information, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, flagella.
Two Domains of Prokaryotes
Bacteria and Archaeabacteria
Different base sequence of RNA than bacteria, no peptidoglycan, more closely related to Eukaryotes, no known to cause disease, have histones (protein that DNA winds around in Eukaryotes)
Prokaryotic cell wall
Mostly made of peptidoglycan (disaccharides and peptides)
single circular chromosome
Whip like tail for movement of bacteria
Aid in reproduction
Asexual reproduction. Copy everything inside and divide in half. No genetic variation
Ways bacteria can get genetic variation
Mutation & Genetic recombination
Transfer of DNA/plasmids from donor to recipient through pili.
Ability to take in DNA from surroundings. (from closely related species)
Transfer of DNA by bacteriophage.
Has a thick layer of peptidoglycan. Stains purple.
Has a thin peptidoglycan layer and lipid layer. Stains reddish pink.
Groups of 4
How pathogens cause disease
Damage surrounding cells and feed off of them or release toxins which disrupts cell processes.
How antibiotics kill bacteria
Prevent protein synthesis, prevent DNA/RNA replication, block ability to make peptidoglycan.
3 types of archaea
Methanogens, halophiles, thermoacidophiles
Live in swamps, marshes, intestinal tracts
Live in high salt concentrations (ocean not salty enough)
Live in extremely acidic and high temperature environments
Enzymes that 'cut' DNA at particular places.
The place where restriction enzymes 'cut' DNA
"tails" of unpaired DNA left after restriction enzymes cut DNA
Enzyme that joins/glues fragments of DNA together
Circular ring of DNA in bacteria that are separate from their chromosome
Process that can separate different sizes pieces of DNA using electric current
cells that divide continuously and can become any type of cell
DNA that contains DNA from another species
The overall electric charge of DNA
The end of the gel that DNA will move towards during an electrophoresis.
replacing defective genes with functional genes
Small pieces of DNA will move (faster / slower) than large pieces of DNA in a gel electrophoresis
Large pieces of DNA will move (faster / slower) than smaller pieces of DNA in a gel electrophoresis.
Virus & CRISPR
the vectors used in gene therapy
Nuclear Transfer in Cloning
Process where a nucleus of a body cell is inserted into an empty egg cell and then stimulated to grow into an embryo
Human Genome Project
mapping the genome of humans to learn about diseases, interactions with medications etc
Uses of gel electrophoresis
forensics, evolutionary relationships, paternity
using microorganisms to clean up environmental pollutants
Steps of recombinant DNA technology
cut out gene of interest and cut open plasmid with restriction enzymes, glue in gene to plasmid with ligase, insert back into bacteria
a restriction enzyme discovered for editing genes with increased accuracy and precision
using computers to determine genes of all species
designing medications based on how it will interact with a person's genes
Making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism
Genetically modified organism (GMO)
an organism that has been genetically altered by humans
zone of inhibition
The area where bacteria can't grow around a given substance
solutions that destroy microorganisms or inhibit their growth on living tissue
Chemical products that destroy pathogens on non-living surfaces
Drugs that block the growth and reproduction of bacteria
the ability of bacteria to withstand the effects of an antibiotic