Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
Jean Inman Domain I
Terms in this set (647)
crispness of vegetables -- due to the osmotic pressure of water filled vacuoles
What is the limiting protein in soybeans?
textured protein products
-soy beans used as a meat extender
Ripening process of fruit
-starch changes to sugar
-protopectin covered to pectin (ripe fruit) then converted to pectic acid (overripe fruit)
What accelerates ripening of fruits?
Vegetables/fruits to be stored at room temp
avocados, bananas, pears and tomatoes
What vegetables should be washed right before storage?
berries and mushrooms
Brix by a Brix
degrees brix is the sugar content of an aqueous solution
pigment is green
insoluble in water
olive green in acid
dull in alkaline
pigment is yellow/orange
insoluble in water
little effect in acid/alkaline
contribute to red color in tomatoes and watermelon, overtones in apricots
Flavonoids consist of
anthocyanins and anthoxanthins
pigment red, blue, purple
soluble in water
bright red in acid
blush in alkaline
pigment is white
soluble in water
colorless in acid
yellow in alkaline
cause astringent feeling in the mouth
like in an underripe banana
-based on quality, firmness, color, maturity, freedom for defects, uniform in size and shape
-Graded by USDA
What causes the change in color in potatoes?
phenolic compounds-- causes the changes in raw, peeled, or bruised potatoes
Green color in potatoes caused by?
chlorophyll that develops when a potatoes is exposed to light
*may be accompanied by solanine, a natural toxicant
rule of thumb for cooking green vegetables?
cook w/out a cover
rule of thumb for cooking red vegetables?
cook with a cover
Definition of finish related to meat
amount of fat cover on carcass
structural part of tendon that surrounds muscle
-becomes tender in heat
-collagen increases with age + exercise
-found in ligaments, cartilage; yellow in color
-resistant to heat, little change in cooking
Nutrition components of meat
CHO; glycogen stored in liver, glucose in blood
Vitamins; thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, iron, copper, trace minerals
*vitamin B (only in animal products)
Main contributor to meat color?
myoglobin + oxygen -> red ->brown ->green
Myoglobin makes of % of meat
*20-30% hemoglobin (iron containing)
affect of acid on meat
increased tenderness by increasing water-binding capacity
modified atmosphere packaging
-air is removed and replaced with gases
Inspection of meat
-Mandatory, done at slaughter
Grading of meat
-prime, choice, select, standard
-based on maturity of animal, marbling of fat, color, and texture
safe minimal temperatures
pork, beef, veal, lamb, steads, roast, fish - 145
ground beef, ground veal, ground lamb - 160
turkey, chicken, duck (birds) - 165
Temperature of smoke point
Dry heat; used for what types of meat?
used for tender cuts
moist heat used for what types of meat?
used for less tender cut and more connective tissue
purified and frozen minced fish with a preservative
-paste made from fish
-used in analogs
change from liquid to a gas/solid
raw egg --- hard boiled egg
temperature at which protein coagulates
80% casein, 20% whey
145F for 30minutes
160F for 15 seconds
cohort- any group whose members have something in common
an observation study that is designed to mimic a randomized clinical trail
all of the cases of a specific disease among a group of people in a specific time
time series, series of measurements at periodic intervals
regulates metabolism and rate of oxidation
-secretion from endocrine glands/thyroid gland
conversion of non-carbohydrate sources into glucose (from glycerol and amino acids)
synthesis of a more complex substance, utilizes energy released by catabolism
breakdown; users and releases energy, creates a constant energy deficit
Basal Energy Expenditure
BEE= minimum amount of energy needed at rest in fasting
Basal metabolic rate
BMR= measure in the morning, laying still, aware, relaxed, normal body temperature, 12 hrs between last meal
-measure energy consumption
-affected by sex, age, body composition, endocrine glands
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
How does temperature affect BMR?
7% increase of each degree rise in temperature
glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars)
Sucrose, maltrose, lactose
sucrose = glucose +fructose
maltose = glucose + glucose
lactose = glucose + galactose
single sugar unit
fructose; fruit sugar
decrease serum cholesterol
increase overall transit time + increased fecal weight
prevent + relieve constipation
decrease overall intestinal transit time
classification of proteins
amino acids; simple
simple plus non-protein (lipoprotein); conjugated
ragments from simple and conjugated (peptide); derived
essential amino acids
threonine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine (PVT TIM HaLL)
Vitamin A: properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; fat-soluble, stored in the liver, carotene- precursor , converted in intestinal mucosal sells, toxic level 10,000U
function; skin, vision
sources; yellow, orange fruits, dark green leafy vegetables
needs; M 900 F 700 ug RE
deficiencies; night blindness, nyctalopia, xerophthalmia, dry scaly skin
Vitamin D; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; Cholesterol is precursor, UV light
function; Ca, P metabolism
sources; sunlight, egg yolk, fortified milk
needs; AI 5-15 ug
deficiencies; rickets, osteomalacia (adult rickets)
Vitamin E; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
function; antioxidant, resists hemolysis of RBC
sources; vegetable oils, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, almonds
needs; 15 mg
deficiencies; hemolytic anemia
Vitamin K; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; synthesized by bacteria in the lower intestinal tract
function; forms prothrombin in liver, aids in blood clotting
sources; green leafy vegetables, spinach, kale
needs; M 120 ug, F 90 ug
deficiencies; hemorrhage, affected by mineral oil, antibiotics, anticoagulants
Thiamin (B1); properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; water soluble, lost as temp or pH rises
function; oxidation of CHO, metabolism of pyruvate
sources; grains, wheat germ, pork, liver
needs; M 1.2mg, F 1.1mg
deficiencies; Beriberi, muscle weakness, foot drop, memory loss, tachycardia, increase plasma pyruvate, Wernicke's encephalopathy
Riboflavin (B2); properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; Lost in UV light
function; Energy release from protein, red cell production
sources; liver, kidney, meat, milk
needs; M 1.3mg, F 1.1mg
deficiencies; Growth failure, Cheilosis - cracked lips, angular stomatitis - mouth corner cracks, magenta tongue
Niacin; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; Precursor tryptophan
function; Metabolism of CHO, protein, fat
sources; protein, pancakes, ready to eat cereals, chicken, rice yeast, milk
needs; M 16 NE, F 14 NE
deficiencies; pellagra, dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, bright red tongue, symmetrical pigmented rash in sunlight
Folate;properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; PABA is precursor
function; DNA synthesis, prevents neurotube defects
sources; fortified dry cereal, liver, vegetables, citrus fruit, lentils, beans
needs; 400 ug
deficiencies; megaloblastic macrocytic anemia, diarrhea, fatigue
B6; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; Pyridoxine (a name of B6)
function; coenzyme in amino acid metabolism, deamination
sources; meat, wheat, corn, yeast, pork, liver, ready to eat cereals
needs; M 1.2-1.7 mg, F 1.3-1.5mg
deficiencies; Seizures anemia, dermatitis, glossitis, peripheral neuropathy
B12; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; Cyanocobalamin (synthetic form of B12)
function; Coenyzme in protein synthesis, froms RBC
sources; liver, meat, milk, kidney, eggs, fish, cheese
needs; 2.4 ug
deficiencies; macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, pernicious anemia 2/2 to gastrectomy or removal of ileum due to lack of intrinsic factor
Pantothenic acid; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; water soluble
function; Coenzyme A- energy synthesis of fatty acids
sources; animal foods, grains, legumes
needs; AI 5 mg
deficiencies; rare deficiency, paresthesia in feet
Vitamin C ; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; aka Ascorbic acid, antioxidant, destroyed by heat, alkaline pH, oxidation
function; wound healing, aids in iron absorption, changes proline to hyrdroxyproline
sources; citrus fruits, yellow vegetables, potatoes
deficiencies; scurvy, poor wound healing, bleeding gums
Biotin; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; synthesized by intestinal bacteria, inactivated by avidin
function; coenzyme in fatty acid synthesis, converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate
sources; liver, kidney, egg yolk, yeast
needs; AI 30ug
deficiencies; muscle pain, dermatitis, glossitis
Calcium ; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; most abundant mineral, regulate by parathyroid hormone
function; blood clotting, cardiac function, nerve transmission, smooth muscle contractility
sources; dairy products, leafy vegetables, legumes
deficiencies; hypocalcemia leads to tetany
phosphorus ; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; part of DNA, RNA, ATP
function; phospholipids transport fat through lymph and blood bone, teeth
sources; meat, milk, poultry, eggs, fish, cheese
needs; 700 mg
Iron; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; trace mineral, part of hemoglobin, food ferric, absorbable ferrous, stored ferritin
function; oxygen transport
sources; heme iron- animal foods non-heme- plants
needs; M 8mg, F 18mg
deficiencies; pale tongue, fatigue, anemia, spoon shaped nails
magnesium; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; part of chlorophyll, 50% in bone, 50% in cells
function; protein and fatty acid synthesis, stabilizes ATP
sources; most foods, milk, bread
needs; M 420 mg, F 320mg
Zinc; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; trace mineral, excess leads to copper or iron deficiency
function; increases taste acuity, enhances insulin action, stabilizes DNA, RNA, cell division
sources; meat liver, eggs, fish
needs; M 11mg F 8mg
deficiencies; reduced immune function, poor wound healing
Iodine; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; trace mineral, part of thyroxine
function/normal thyroid function
sources; seafood, iodized salt
needs 150 ug
Copper; properties, function, sources, needs, deficiencies
properties; trace mineral, attached to protein ceruloplasmin
function; hemoglobin synthesis, aids iron absorption
sources; liver, kidney, shellfish
needs; 900 ug
deficiencies; rare microcytic anemia, wilson's disease
Normal range of Na
Normal range of K
Normal range of Ca
Normal range of Mg
Normal range of Chloride
Normal range of Phosphorus
#10 can; #/case, net wt, measure, #servings
net wt; 6lbs 9oz
measure; 13 cups
#3 can; #/case, net wt, measure, #servings
net wt; 46 ounces (roughly 3lbs)
measure; 5 3/4 cups
#2 1/2 can; #/case, net wt, measure, #servings
net wt; 29 oz
measure; 3 1/2 cups
#2 can; #/case, net wt, measure, #servings
net wt;20 oz
measure; 2 1/2 cups
#200 can; #/case, net wt, measure, #servings
net wt; 14-16oz
measure; 1 3/4 cups
Phytochemicals general categories;
terpenes, cartotendois, lycopene, limonoids,phenols, flavinoids, isoflavones, phytoestrogens, thiols, indols, lignans
What is food synergy
the additive influence of foods and constituents which, when eaten, have a beneficial effect on health
In baking, yellowing is caused by?
alkaline batter (excess baking soda)
In baking, fallen center is caused by?
excess sugar, excess fat, excess baking powder, inadequate mixing, oven temp to low or opening door early during baking
In baking, tough dry crumb is caused by?
too much flour or egg, too much mixing, too little fat or sugar, or over baking
In baking, coarse texture is caused by?
too much baking powder or sugar, oven temp too low, or inadequate mixing
In baking, poor volume is caused by?
too little baking powder, or improper level of sugar of fat
In baking, bitter flavor is caused by?
too much baking powder
In baking excess mixing can cause?
When baking at higher altitudes what adjustments should be made?
decreased amount of baking powder, increases amount of liquid
What is starch composed of?
amylose and amylopectin
which molecule of starch is responsible for gelation?
Blooms taxonomy hierarchy of learning includes;
create, evaluate, analyze, apply, understand, remember
encourages repetition of a given behavior; prizes, treats, rewards
learn to escape from unpleasant consequences; avoid future criticism by improving future performance
extinction behavior learning
reduce undesired behavior, absence of reinforcement following undesired behavior
index for reading level; determined by polysyllabic word count
materials should be 6th grade reading level for lower literacy, 8th grade for general population
Null hypothesis definition;
no relationship in population data, often expressed as equal to
Which vitamin is used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia?
which is heme iron
found in animal products
which is non-heme iron
found in plant products
absorbed more readily with vitamin C
If a label reads free of, what about may be present in the food?
.49 grams is possible within each sample
Where is majority of Vitamin B12 absorbed?
the portion of non-affected individuals who are shown to be unaffected
a product of agriculture
considered raw materials
a useful consumer good
cuts of meat include
URMIS stands for?
Uniform retail meat identity standards
Iron found in animal products consist of?
Both Fe2 (ferrous) and Fe3 (ferric) are both found in meat
Where is potassium absorbed?
small intestine and colon
Vitamin B2 is also known as?
What to parameters must be set by a research team?
Alpha and Beta
Alpha in research is defined by
the statistical significance level
Beta in research is defined by
the power to detect the magnitude of difference
focus group of experts
Types of descriptive research include
case report, case study, or case series
tests hypotheses concerning the effects of specific factors of interest and allows casual associations to be determined
Randomization within research is
dividing people into treatment or control groups without bias
case control studies
focus on specific disease
those with the disease are compared with a group without the disease
one time data collection
all of the cases of a specific disease among a group of people in a specific time
tests whether the difference between the two groups is real (did the group really performed differently)
tests whether or not a generalization can be made from the study to a larger population
analysis of variance; a tool used to evaluate validity
Sensitivity in relations to research
proportion of affected individuals who test postiive
variables that you manipulate in the study
In plants the main storage of energy is?
convert grams to moles
grams divided by atomic weight
metabolic break down of glucose to pyruvate or lactate
By Sigmund freud; founded on the premise that to resolve current issues on must work through the unconscious roots and address it origin
What is the experimental design method
-analytical design approach
-include the double blind methodology
what is the gold standard of research
randomized, double blind clinical trail is considered an experimental design
For long distance running what energy source is used?
fatty acids would the primary source and glucose would also be used
DE; is a percentage measurement using pure dextrose as the standard set at 100
allows for the comparison of carbohydrates showing relative solubility and reducing ability
Herzbergs theory of job motivation includes
focused on two questions "what do you like about your job, and what do you like about your job?"
motivators include; achievement, growth, recognition, and responsibility
-also compliments Maslow's model
the client understands the problem but is not yet or willing to change
the release of water overtime from gelatins
term exposure is relation to nutritional research
the dose of a particular item
splitting of large molecules by adding water
looks at individuals that already have a condition and then looks back in time to try to find causes of that condition
Labeled low calories means;
the maximum number of calories in a serving is 40
Vitamin B1 is also known as
What percentage lies within 1 SD of mean
What percentage lies within 2SD either side of the mean?
definition of correlation
relationships between varying types of data
linear correlation coefficient (r)
measure the degree to which the points in a scatter diagrams cause about a straight line
Levels of significance
the lower the p value the higher the significance of your results
p value -- #/strength
< 0.05 significant difference, results are reliable
<0.01 very significant difference, stronger results
<0.0001 very very significant reliable results
>0.05 not very significant difference, not reliable results
A food label that is a good source of fiber suggests?
at least 10% of the daily value but less than 20%
At what point is the majority CHO digestion completed?
in the alkaline environment found within the proximal small intestine
What is dietary fiber?
the edible non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin that are found in plants
What is anecdotal evidence?
evidence that comes in testimonial format or from information that goes against current scientific data
To determine if the anemia is related to B12 what can you check?
elevated blood methyl malonic acid or elevated homocysteine
T test definition
tests significance between the means of two different populations
-tests null hypothesis against alternative hypothesis
results of T test
if the value is equal to less than the level set of significance, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis
the hypothesis the research tries to disprove or reject
the hypothesis the research is trying to prove
conversion of non-carbohydrate sources into glucose
proteins, organize catalysts that control reactions
enzyme activators; including some vitamins
which coenzymes are needed for energy production
pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
energy expended in physical activity
Thermic of food
-makes up about 10% of total energy expenditure
-greater after consumption of cho + protein
BMR affected by
(basal metabolic rate)
3. body composition, body surface area
4. endocrine glands - thyroid
Of the predictive equations which one provides the closet prediction to BMR
Mifflin St.Jeor, which predicts with in 10% of indirect calorimetry
measure oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide excreted using a portable machine
Glucose, fuctose, galactose (simple sugars)
-resistant to digestive enzyme amylase
-cannot be digested because the body does not have the ability to bread the beta 1-4 linkage bond
non digestible , thickening quality, in fruits
animal starch, from glucose, stored in muscle and liver
intermediate product of starch breakdown
Names of carbohydrates include
starches, glycans, saccharides, polysaccharides, and oligosaccharides
physical components of protein
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (16%), sulfur
Functions of protein
tissue synthesis, maintains growth, regulates body processes
Protein diet requirements
10-35% of diet
-all available bonds of carbon chain are filled with hydrogen
-solid and hard at room temperature
-higher melting point
-one or more double bonds
-usually liquid at room temperature
-one double bond
two or more double bonds
essential fatty acid; linoleic acid deficiency
lack creates eczema, poor growth rate, petechiae (red, purple skin spots)
essential fatty acid; linolenic acid
deficiency results in neurological changes, numbness, blurred vision
Linolenic acid details
-comes mainly from fish oils
-decreases hepatic production of triglycerides
Linoleic acid details
-safflower is the best source
process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to increase saturation and stability
examples of monounsaturated fats
olive, canola, peanut, sunflower
examples of polyunsaturated fats
safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed, sunflower
equation to determine calories from alcohol
mEq= (mg/ atomic weight) x valence
one teaspoon has how many grams of sodium
fluid moves from less to more concentrated side of membrane
particles move from more to less concentrated side
extreme, generalized edema, and widespread swelling of skin due to effusion of fluid into extracellular space
-associated with heart, liver, renal failure, and extreme protein/calorie malnutrition
Hypoantermia is associated with
over-hydration, fluid overload
Hyperantermia is associated with
In relation to acid base -Hypoventilation;
retention of acid, CO2 retention
In relation to acid base -Hyperventilation;
loss of acid, CO2 loss,
kidneys are excrete excess base (uremia, diarrhea)
could be related to
increased hydrogen production or retention by kidney
uncontrolled diabetes, starvation
lungs compensate by expelling CO2, hyperventilation
abnormal retention of base
diuretics or vomiting
lungs compensate by retaining CO2, hypoventilation
Normal weight gain for pregnancy for normal BMI
Normal weight gain for underweight female BMI <18.5
Normal weight gain for overweight female BMI 25-29.9
Normal weight gain for obese female BMI >30
Calories during pregnancy
2nd trimester +340calories
3rd trimester +452 calories
Calories during lactation
1st 6 months +330calories
6-12 months +400 calories
hormone that develops placenta after implantations
What is DHA needed for during pregnancy
needed for development of fetal nervous system
Normal weight for infant
Low birth weight
Very low birth weight
Extremely low birth weight
Energy needs for 0-6months baby
calories 520F 570M
Water 125-155 ml/kg
fat minimum of 30g
Energy needs for 7-12 months baby
calories 676F 743M
fat minimum of 30g
Hemoglobin for newborn
Hemoglobin for 6-23 months
Hematocrit for newborn
Hemoglobin for pregnancy
Hematocrit for pregnancy
Nutrition value of human milk
7% protein, 38% CHO, 55% fat
Supplements need for breast feed babies
400IU vitamin D from birth
.25mg fluoride after 6 months
Signs of adequate milk supply
6-8 wet diapers per day
Infant formula nutrition value
has more protein, more iron than human milk
At what age should you add solids?
4-6 months; when sitting posture can be sustained and extrusion reflex diminishes
If baby cannot tolerate cow's milk based or soy products use
formulas made from casein hydrolysate (pregestimil)
B12 and folate are associated with
macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
What enzymes are secreted by the pancreas?
amylase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxy peptidase
A deficiency of which nutrient is associated with Wernickes encephalopathy?
Which foods should be avoided for Celiac disease
Products containing gluten: BROW
Barely, rye, oats, wheat
What is synthesized by the liver from cholesterol?
Microcytic anemia is characterized by;
smaller than normal erythrocytes and less circulating hemoglobin
Which vitamin should be assed in patients with atrophic gastritis
-atrophic gastritis is chronic inflammation of the stomach
which results in achlorydia (loss of secretion of hydrochloric acid) and loss of intrinsic factor
Protein digestion begins where?
in the mouth
Which enzymes are involved in protein digestion
pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Hepatic failure affects BUN levels how?
a LOW BUN is common with liver disease
What does the pancreas produce?
glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin
What are the major functions of cholecystokinin (CCK)
1. stimulate the pancreas to secrete enzymes and bicarbonate and water
2. stimulate gallbladder contraction
3. increase colonic and rectal motility
4. slow gastric emptying
5. increase satiety
What are the benefits of MCT oils
they are rapidly hydrolyzed and absorbed in the absence of bile acids
Maternal hormones are released from?
the pituitary gland
stimulate milk production
is responsible for the let down of milk into the ducts
yellowish transparent fluid secreted from the breast during first few days; has more protein, less fat and CHO
BMI charts for children percentiles mean?
5th to 84th = healthy weight
85th to 94th = overweight
>95 = obese
Lead poisoning symptoms include
irritability, lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea
Adequate intake for fiber
age under 50; Men 38g Women 25g
over 50; Men 30 Women 21
During prolonged exercise what is used an energy source
reliance on CHO to provide PYRUVATE of continued lipid oxidation
Black cohosh; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: ease menopause symptoms
Potential interaction: may cause clotting
Comfrey; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: soothe nerves
Potential interaction: irreversible liver disease
Echinacea; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: prevent moderate cold symptoms
Potential interaction: avoid taking >2 months
Ephedra; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: promote weight loss
Potential interaction: rapid heart rate, headaches, very likely hazardous
Garlic; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: may decrease cholesterol, blood pressure
Potential interaction: reduces clotting time, avoid use with warfarin
Ginkgo biloba; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: vasodilation
Potential interaction: avoid use with warfarin
Ginseng; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: immunity, endurance
Potential interaction: high blood pressure, avoid use with warfarin
Kava; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: relieve anxiety
Potential interaction: liver failure, very likely hazardous
Milk thistle; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: may help protect liver
St. Johns wort; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: antidepressant
Potential interaction: may compromise meds for heart disease, cancer, seizure, birth control
Licorice root; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: ulcers
Potential interaction: avoid combinations with diuretics
Saw palmetto; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: relieve symptoms of enlarge prostate
Potential interaction: diuretic
Valerian root; primary use + potential interaction
Primary use: calms nerves
Potential interaction: avoid with liver disease
stimulates gastric recreations and motility
stimulates flow of pancreatic juice and water into the duodenum
Where is most of digestion completed?
middle of the jejunum
rhythmic movements of small intestine
bacteria digestions occurs where
Nutrients absorbed in the large intestine include
water, salts, and vitamins synthesized by bacteria including Vitamin K, B12, Thiamin, Riboflavin
Digestion in the mouth includes
Fat and protein mechanical broken up
CHO broken down into starch -->dextrin --> maltose
enzyme responsible for CHO broken down in the mouth
Digestion in the stomach of protein includes
1. pepsinogen + HCL of stomach --> pepsin
2. pepsin acts on protein --> protease, peptones
Digestion in the small intestine of CHO
pancreatic amylase ---> starch --> dextrin --> maltose
Digestion in the small intestine of fat
Bile salts from the gallbladder emulsifies fat
lipase; triglycerides --> FFA, glycerol
Cholesterol esterase; Cholesterol --> cholesterol esters
Phospholipase; Phospholipids --> lysolecithin, FFA
Digestion in the small intestine of protein
trypsin; protein, protease, peptone --> polypeptide
Chymotrypsin; protease, peptone --> poly and di peptide
carboxypeptidase; polypeptide --> dipeptides, amino acids
aminopeptidase; polypeptide --> peptide, amino acids
dipeptidase; dipeptides --> amino acids
ALPHA cells of pancreas; induces glycogenolysis
BETA cells of pancreas; increases cell permeability to glucose -- fosters glycogenesis, lipogenesis
the hormone that helps promote protein --> glucose (gluconeogenesis)
released by the adrenal medulla
-stimulates sympathetic nervous system
-stimulates liver and muscle glycogenolysis (glycogen--> glucose)
-decreases release of insulin from pancreas during catabolic stress; blood glucose rises
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic); insulin antagonists
process of glycogen synthesis
catabolism of glycogen
creating of glucose from substances such as amino acids and glycerol
-carried out in the liver
breaks down glucose into pyruvate, catabolism of CHO
catabolism of glucose into pyruvate (include oxygen)
catabolism of glucose into lactate (without oxygen)
lactate is released for tissue, transported to liver, and converted back to pyruvate
What is required for energy production within the Krebs cycle?
Thiamin(TDO), Niacin (NAD), Riboflavin (FAD), Pantothenic acid (CoA) magnesium, and lipoic acid
full oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose yields how man ATP
Acetyl CoA is
the intermediate breakdown product of CHO, protein and fat
needed for the transport of amino acids
Tyrosine can be synthesized from
Cysteine can be synthesized from
during exercise what is amino acid is released from the muscles?
Alanine; is transported to the liver, deaminated, and converted to glucose
Nitrogen balance; 0 means, - means, + means
0 = equilibrium
- = erosion of body protein; inadequate oral intake
+ = net gain in body protein; infant, teenager, pregnancy, healing
Nitrogen balance formula
Protein intake (grams)/ 6.25 - (UUN +4)
Biologic value of protein
determined by nitrogen balance techniques to determine the fraction of absorbed nitrogen retained growth and maintenance
*eggs have a BV of 100
Protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores
-estimated the amount of protein in each food category that is actually digested
-plant proteins 70-90%
splitting off NH2 by hydrolysis in the liver
transfer of amino group to a veto acid to form a new amino
what hormones are involved in the anabolism of protein?
pituitary growth hormone, thyroid hormone, insulin, testosterone
What are the end products of fat digestion?
monoglycerides, diglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids
How as Cholesterol excreted from the body?
excreted by liver as bile
How is fat accumulation prevented in the liver
lipotropic factors produce lipoproteins which transfer fatty acids out of the liver
uphill pumping from lower to high concentration across a membrane against an energy gradient -- most nutrients (glucose, amino acids, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe)
some water and electrolytes
higher concentration to lower concentration
higher to lower concentration
What aids in the absorption of vitamin A
bile salts, pancreatic lipase, fat
What aids in the absorption of vitamin D
bile salts, acidity of chime, accompanies Ca, P absorption
What aids in the absorption of Vitamin E, K
bile salts, fat
What aids in the absorption of thiamin
What aids in the absorption of riboflavin
What aids in the absorption of B12
ileum, stomach secretion (HCL + intrinsic factor)
What aids in the absorption of calcium
acid, vitamin D, lactose
What aids in the absorption of iron
What part of the brain is responsible for regulation of food intake?
-acts as a satiety and feeding center
-also regulates body temperature
What aids in the absorption of thiamin
Significance level is also the?
MCH is calculated by?
dividing hemoglobin by red blood cells then multiple by 10
MCH= Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
1 oz of starchy foods = how many grams of CHO
15g or 1 carb exchange
The objective part of SOAP should include
lab data, age, weight hx, ht, wt, pertinent medications, calorie requirements, nausea, diarrhea etc
What are the 12 LHI topics
Healthy people LHI (leading health topics) include;
access to health services
clinical preventive services
injury and violence
maternal infant, and child health
Nutrition, physical activity and obesity
reproductive and sexual health
Prothrombin time is
how fast the body is able to clot and is heavily dependent on Vitamin K
How do you convert amount of table salt (mg of salt) to sodium?
to determine the mount of sodium in a certain amount of table salt...
multiple wt of table salt by 0.393
What is an open study?
Open study is one where both the participants and the researchers are aware of which group the participants have been placed
How many Kilojoules per kcal?
Linolencic acid (omega 3) can be converted to what?
DHA and EPA
Characteristics of a Cohort studying include?
-designed to mimic a randomized clinical trial
-observation in design
-no manipulation of variables
-includes a group of individuals that share something in common
-designed using an analytical technique
-tests a hypothesis
-may be a group of individuals that are at risk for developing a condition of interest but are free of the condition at the start of the study
Where is iron absorbed?
in the duodenum
Which act made the inspection of meat mandatory?
The wholesome Meat Act of 1967
Dietary fiber defintion
edible non-digestible carbohydrates and lignins that are found in plants
Which fiber has been shown to increase stool frequency and weight?
what is the gravida number?
The number of pregnancies a woman has experience including any existing ones
in the cognitive domain knowledge is defined as?
the ability to remember and regurgitate data, without any regards to understanding it
in the cognitive domain comprehension is defined as?
the ability to understand the data enough to state or explain the concept to someone else
in the cognitive domain application is defined as?
applying information and assembling them into action
in the cognitive domain analysis is defined as?
form relationships between data components
in the cognitive evaluation/education level is defined as?
highest level, able to compare informational sources and judge the quality of the data
What are the roles of sugar in baking?
helps add volume, tenderness, texture, and color, can also assist in leavening
Hypocalcemia can lead to
the stimulation of the parathyroid gland to produce PTH
What is the purpose of descriptive research design
They are done to collect data that usually leads to the generation of a hypothesis
usually done first to collect data that defines sometime at specific point in time
Fluoride; recommended intake, function, deficiencies
Function: teeth and bones
Recommended intake: M 4mg F 3mg
Deficiencies: dental caries
*supplement in babies after 6 months
Copper: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
attached to protein ceruloplasmin
function: hemoglobin synthesis, aids in iron absorption
Sources; liver, kidney, shellfish
recommend: 900 ug
deficiencies: microcytic anemia, neutropenia, wilsons disease (genetic disorder where theres an absence of liver enzyme and copper accumulates in the liver)
Selenium: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
cooperates with vitamin E
function: antioxidant, tissues respiration
sources: soil, grains, meat, fish, poultry, dairy
recommendations: M 55 ug F 45 ug
deficiencies: Myalgia, cardiac myopathy
Manganese: : recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
function: central nervous system
sources: whole grains, legumes, nuts
recommendations: 1.8-2.3 ug
Chromium: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
Absorption enhanced by vitamin C, niacin
function: aids insulin action, glucose metabolism
sources; Yeast, oysters, potatoes, liver
deficiency insulin resistance
Cobalt: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
Exists with B12, stored in liver
Function: maturation of red blood cells
deficiency: related to B12 deficiency
Sulfur: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
Part of amino acids cysteine, methionine
Function: component of organic molecules
recommendations: 425-550 mg AI
sources: meat, fish, eggs, poultry
Choline: recommended intake, function, deficiencies, food sources
Component of lecithin
Function: transports lipids as acetylcholine
sources: fat in eggs, milk, liver, soybeans
When you check overrun, you are checking
the weight of the ice cream
Process of water content of a vegetable being replaced by a concentrated salt solution
What should be adjusted if a cake has a crunchy crust and a compact moist texture?
Why do egg whites beat more easily at room temperature?
surface tension is lower
Which pigment does not change color in an acid or an alkaline solution?
The end products of cellular oxidation are
water, CO2, energy
CHO listed in order of decreasing sweetness
fructose, sucrose, glucose, sorbitol
Flakiness of a pie crust depends on
type of fat
Gelatin cannot be sole source protein because..
it has no tryptophan and is low in methionine and lysine
A #10 can holds how many cups of product?
How does replacing half and half with whipping cream affect the ice crystals of ice cream?
They decrease in size because there is more fat
Neural tube defects can be reduced with supplementation of what?
Best lab value to assess iron status
Best flour to use when making cakes
all purpose (or cake)
Where is lactose absorbed?
Best oil temp to use for frying
Minerals involved in CHO metabolism
Acidic chyme is neutralized in the duodenum by
mixing with bicarbonate and fluid
Colon functions in the absorption of..
water, salts, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin
To prevent frozen gravy from separating when thawing
Prepare it with modified starch
How much fluid is lost through insensible losses?
An amino acid that cannot be produced in the body
Essential amino acids
An irreversible reaction of glycolysis
Pyruvic acid --> acetyl CoA
Riboflavin, thiamin, and niacin are all involved in
production of amino acids
Increased plasma pyruvate level may indicate
What stabilizes an egg white foam?
Winterized oil is
clear when refrigerated
What may cause EKG abnormalities?
high serum potassium levels
In the fed state, the brain uses which nutrient as a source of energy?
In starvation, the brain uses which nutrient as an energy source?
creation of glucose from glycerol and amino acids
Glycolysis is the
catabolism of carbohydrate
Glycogenolysis is the
breakdown of glycogen releasing glucose
The end product of aerobic glycolysis is
Protein-bound iodine measures
level of thyroxine being produced
The hormone epinephrine
raises blood glucose during catabolic stress
A provitamin is
a nutrient that can be converted into a vitamin
The formula for producing active vitamin D is
7-dehydrocholesterol converting into cholecalciferol
In the human, vitamin K is affected by
anticoagulants and antibiotics
Which hormone regulates calcium levels
Pyridoxine acts as a coenzyme in
deamination and transamination
Which of the following are synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin K
Ascorbic acid aids in healing. Which of the following applies?
proline --> hydroxyproline --> collagen
Biotin is considered a coenzyme in the synthesis of
Food iron is in the ____ form
Food iron is reduced in the stomach to the more absorbable form of
Which would aid the absorption of an iron supplement?
Bile is produced in the ___ and stored in the _____.
contraction of the gallbladder
Which enzymes are involved in protein digestion?
Pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Protein digestion begins in the
Lactase is produced in the
Which enzymes are secreted by the pancreas?
amylase, lipase, cholesterol esterase, trypsin, chymotrypsin
Which conversion requires glucose-6-phosphatase?
liver glycogen --> glucose
essential in the synthesis of fatty acids
The following are required for the conversion of pyruvic acid into active acetate
thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, magnesium
Which vitamin acts as a coenzyme in transamination?
Glucocortocoids convert ___ into ____
protein into glucose
Dietary fat enters the blood as ____ and leaves the liver as ____
The oxidation of fatty acids forms
The best way to monitor an infant's FTT is to plot...
weight for length
Which of the following can be reversed with vitamin A?
Fresh meat contamination comes mainly from
Which amino acids must be present in a parenteral solution
tryptophan, phenylalanine, threonine, isoleucine
Iron absorption is enhanced by
the acidity of chyme in the duodenum
Which inhibits gluconeogenesis
which has the lowest cholesterol content?
PB and crackers
What is the difference between cake flour and bread flour?
cake flour has less gluten, weaker gluten, and less protein
Vitamin A is involved with
development of skin and tissue
A patient with metabolic alkalosis would have
retention of base by the kidneys
Which foods should be washed just before serving?
strawberries and mushrooms
Which gov't agency inspects and grades meat?
If linoleic acid replaces CHO in the diet...
LDL decreases, HDL increases
Which is not absorbed directly into portal blood?
long chain fatty acids
When substituting buttermilk for whole milk in pastry..
increase the baking soda
Ground meat will spoil faster than sliced meat because
more surface area is exposed
Evaporated milk has
slightly more than half of the water removed
Ketones are most associated with
Which best describes sorbitol and glucose?
sorbitol is absorbed more slowly
What causes egg yolk color to change?
alteration of the feed provided
Which data is needed to convert weight into volume?
The tartness in fruits and vegetable is due to
When a white sauce tastes starchy and grainy, the likely cause is
The scientific process by which water makes lettuce crisp is
osmotic pressure of water-filled vacuoles
Four hours after eating you develop nausea, diarrhea, but no fever. The cause may be
Which hormone greatly influences BMR?
In linoleic acid replaces saturated fat in the diet
total cholesterol decreases including HDL
Which oil is highest in monounsaturated fatty acids?
Which oil is highest in saturated fats?
Which of the following may result in metabolic acidosis?
Decreased retention of bicarbonate
Examples of moist heat cooking include
Dry heat cookery should be used for which cut of meat?
near the backbone
What color to onions turn when cooked in an aluminum pan?
Which cooking method would best convert collagen to gelatin in a bottom round roast?
Which method of bread-making is not as dependent on the length of time the dough sits to rise?
Which nutrient is added for flour enrichment?
What does the term "USDA graded" on meat tell the consumer?
It was free of disease at the time of slaughter
A cake with a fallen center may be the result of
excess sugar and excess fat
Which of the following has the least amount of saturated fat?
evaporated skim milk (not non dairy creamer)
Coarse texture in a cake is due to
too much baking powder or sugar
Nitrogen equilibrium is associated with
a 25 year old male (not kids, teens, pregnant)
Children's diets are found to be low in iron due to an emphasis on
Which mineral is involved in blood clotting?
Which of the following is true regarding flour?
cake flour has the least and the weakest gluten
The main function of glycolysis is to provide
pyruvate for the TCA cycle
Food service employees should wash their hands for at least
Metabolites of the Kreb's cycle are
H2O, CO2, energy
Meat graded "US Standard" is the grade given at the
time of slaughter
Which of the following substitutions would most decrease the sodium content of a biscuit?
Low Na milk for whole milk, low Na baking powder for baking powder
Which pasta contains egg?
A person who is iron deficient should consume _____ with iron
OJ (vit. C)
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L indicates
Cabbage should be cooked
in a large quantity of water
To decrease sodium intake, subsitiute
unsalted margarine for regular
Apples stored in a controlled environment would
have extended life and improved marketing quality
The following oils can be winterized
corn, soy, cottonseed
Which would you give to a person who is mildly hypokalemic?
1 piece canteloupe
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L is a sign of
To increase potassium intake, consume a snack of
a grilled cheese and tomato sandwich and strawberries
If protein intake is doubled, which nutrient needs to be increased?
Illness due to Bacillus cereus is due to contaminated ____
rice products and starchy foods
The Cori Cycle converts:
lactate into pyruvate
Fats high in monounsaturated fatty acids include
olive and canola
Fats high in polyunsaturated fatty acids include
safflower and corn
Green beans in cooked tomato sauce turn ____ due to ____
olive green, pheophytin
If you are on a low phosphorus diet, what food should you most avoid?
A 5 month old is diagnosed with salmonella. What is likely the cause?
table food (vs juice or milk)
An 8 month old baby contracts botulism. What is the likely cause?
cereal and honey
Which is the best source of emulsification?
The kidneys respond to respiratory acidosis by ____
increasing the retention of bicarbonate
A serum sodium level of 150 mEq/L may be due to ____
an increased level of aldosterone
Green peas held on the serving line may turn olive green due to
In cereal production, enrichment adds
Cured meat is pink due to
A serum sodium level of 115 mEq/L may be due to
Butter has fatty acids in this order of predominance
SAT, MUFA, PUFA
Margarine has fatty acids in this order of predominance
PUFA, MUFA, SAT
Lactic acid is produced through
Which of the following amino acids is a precursor for serotonin?
When on Dicumarol, avoid increasing your intake of ____
Food was held at 70F for a long time in anaerobic conditions, 8 hrs after eating it you become ill. What is the culprit?
Energy expenditure of humans can be measured by
Gastric proteolysis requires ____
Patients with early signs of xerophthalmia should consume ____
liver, milk, eggs
Sorbitol is more/less sweet than sucrose, and has a lower/higher glycemic index?
less sweet than sucrose and has a lower glycemic index
Which mineral is absorbed through the intestine and transported with ceruloplasmin in the blood?
The Schilling test detects defects in the absorption of
Which one of the following should be avoided on a low sodium diet?
turkey roll (lunch meats)
What is the effect of excess caffeine intake?
The toxic level of vitamin A has been identified as
The best way to prevent the spread of food borne illness is to:
wash hands regularly
The amino acid tryptophan can be converted into
A muffin has long tunnels from top to bottom. Next time you make this recipe you should:
avoid over-mixing the batter
Prevention of an outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes requires special care because
of its ability to grow at temps of 34-113F
Phenylalanine is a presursor for
A cutting board was used to cut up raw chicken. It was then used to cut raw vegetables. Guests eating the meal likely became ill from...
Decreased levels of serotonin are associated with
increase in carbohydrate appetite
Carbohydrate, fat, and protein are all converted into
If energy needs in crease, which vitamins are needed in higher amounts?
Thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid
How many mEq of sodium are in 1gram of sodium?
43 (or 23 idk)
How can you preserve thiamin when cooking pork?
insert a meat thermometer and cook it to 145F in an oven at 325
A good source of vitamin A for pre-school children would be
Which amino acid is especially glucogenic?
If carbohydrate intake is increased, which vitamin needs to be increased?
The rate of oxidation of which branched-chain amino acid increases significantly during moderate exercise?
What should you do with leftover sliced beef from lunch?
refrigerate immediately and serve within 2 days
A food is bacteria-safe if it is
acidic and dry
French fries made from stored potatoes would have changes in..
taste, appearance, and texture
What percent of protein and fat converts to glucose?
58% protein, 10% fat
Excess amounts of zinc may lead to a deficiency of
When adding bran to a flour mixture, what should be changed?
increase the flour and liquid
Glycerol, amino acids, and free fatty acids will have what effect on the hypothalamus gland?
a decrease in satiety
Which of the following is a digestive enzyme secreted by the pancreas?
Clostridium perfingens is often found in
meat and gravied mixtures in large quantities
Salmonella sources are often
raw produce and uncooked foods of animal origin
What must be fortified with folic acid?
Pie crust is moist the day after cooking. Why?
retrogradation of filling
What is the main purpose of water in the body?
it acts as a medium for cell metabolism
What is fluid seeping from a congealed product called?
Which of the following is a common cause of salmonella in a salad bar?
Which food-borne pathogen would most likely contaminate cooked rice or pasta in open pans at room temperature?
Frozen chicken has been thawed in warm water, you should:
When substituting butter for lard in pastry you should
The purpose of an emulsifier in margarine is to
keep water and fat from separating
Which of the following must be reduced to simpler components before it can be transported across epithelial cells of the intestine?
Adding bran to a bread recipe will
decrease the volume
An angel food cake is made without cream of tartar. What is the result?
a yellowy cake
All baking powders contain
Beef bottom round should be cooked how?
in water for an extended time
Which of the following combines with CoA in 2 carbon fragments to make acetyl CoA to then enter the Kerb's cycle to make energy?
What is the best way to cook a roast?
cook slowly in the oven at 325F
A #10 can holds how many cups?
Which of the following has the most bacteria?
What is the product of pyruvate breakdown?
Fructose is more/less sweet than glucose
Infants should be given solid foods at what age
Which of the following is a grade for fresh produce
US No. 1
Which is most likely to be a cause of salmonella?
What gives the structure to quick breads?
egg and flour
When taking an anticoagulant, avoid the following
vitamin E supplements above 400IU per day
What is a function of cream of tartar in a recipe?
prevents the Maillard reaction
The flour with the most starch is
Salmonella contamination in a foodservice can be best controlled by focusing on
sanitizing of the meat slicer
Homemade rolls are crumbly and fall apart easily. The most likely cause of the poor texture is
use of a lower-protein flour
Patients with COPD may better tolerate diets in which fat is the primary energy source vs CHO, because oxidation of fat...
consumes less O2
A commercial muffin mix is describes ad a "rich formula", which means that it contains
high proportions of sugar and shortening
The greatest effect on the yield of meat cooked to a uniform internal temp is produced by the
cooking time and oven temp
The most likely source of Clostridium perfringens is
Which of the following will stabilize the egg in a recipe?
A natural plant hormone that is used to ripen fruits is
Aseptically packaged milk should be stored
in dry storage
Which of the following has a slow onset and is anaerobic?
A frozen meal contains steak, mashed potatoes, BHA, BHT, and TVP. TVP is used to
retain water and add protein
If broccoli in a vegetable mixture turns olive green during holding it may be due to
In the alanine cycle, alanine is released from muscle, taken up by the liver, and...
deaminated to release glucose
In the Cori cycle, lactate is converted into
Normal saline has ____ mEq sodium/L
An amylase deficiency would result in
Fresh eggs in the shell can be stored in a refrigerator at 40F for...
Trypsin and chymotrypsin are..
pancreatic enzymes that provide proteolytic action
Acid-base abnormalities in an uncontrolled diabetic are likely due to
A patient's nitrogen balance study showed he consumed 10g of protein and released 6g nitrogen in the urine. This is...
negative nitrogen balance
Kidneys help control pH by
controlling the ratio of hydrogen ions to bicarbonate excretion
Pernicious anemia is likely to occur following a...
Which pigment can be converted into a vitamin?
The amount of ceruloplasmin is affected by what disease?
An edematous person may actually be dehydrated because...
fluid is retained extracellularly
What usually occurs when iso-caloric amounts of omega 3 fatty acids are substituted for saturated fatty acids?
decreased triglycerides, little change in total cholesterol
When substituted for saturated fats in the diet, which of the following oils will likely lower total cholesterol but also lower HDL cholesterol?
safflower oil (PUFA)
You are a FS dietitian and would like to make lower fat brownies. What is the best way to cut the fat?
use prune puree in place of half of the fat
You want to keep lemon meringue pie at its peak. How should you store it?
keep pie refrigerated
A child is lethargic and irritable with diarrhea, the cause may be..
A child is at the 95th percentile BMI for age. He is..
A child is at the 85th percentile BMI for age. He is...
How many calories are needed by a full-term infant weighing 11lbs at 3mos of age?
Which of the following study designs can best determine the effect of promotional techniques on cafeteria sales?
What should you do with a new client who sits scowling at you during the session?
ask her if she is uncomfortable about the session
The absence of reinforcement following an undesirable behavior is..
When training new employees, what should always be followed?
a planned orientation and training program
In a study on the effects of saccharine, who received the placebo?
the group receiving sugar
Before you teach a class on nutrition, you should..
assess the student's current nutrition knowledge
What type of learning is used when you learn certain physical skills that require physical manipulation?
Active listening in counseling sessions involves
paraphrasing and responding
A study reported a 10% morbidity rate in infants in the country and a 12% morbidity rate for infants in the city. This means that..
more disease in infants in the city than the country
The outpatient RD is planning a continuing ed program. What should be done first?
survey patients to see what interests them
When planning a program for rural elderly, which is most important?
how they will get to you
Which exhibits a positive correlation?
Where would this be placed in a research article? "most of the changes seen were probably due to..."
You are asked to give an inservice to the staff. What should you do first?
observe the staff at work to identify problems
When should performance objectives be given to workers?
the day they are hired
When developing educational plans, when do you plan the evaluation criteria?
at each step in the process
When instituting an employee training program, begin by:
conducting a needs assessment of all to be trained
Which of the following is the most useful for evaluating long term nutrition in a community assessment program?
height for age
Which denotes a high correlation?
The mean is a measure of
In interpreting statistical data, if half of the observations are above 8 and half are below 8, the number 8 is the...
The best advantage of self-instructional models is
they allow the student to proceed at their own pace
A study showed the morbidity of children with anemia to be 6:1000; This means:
5 children out of 1000 has anemia
The results of a GTT would best be placed on
a line graph
When you measure functional and manipulative skills, which domain of learning are you analyzing?
At a first counseling session with a new patient you should
find out what he eats
An appropriate purpose of analytical research is to..
test they hypothesis
Which defines the statistical term "mean"?
If patients in a counseling session become restless,
shorten the sessions
Which would be best when preparing staff for a new way to deliver trays?
include them during discussions of proposed methods
The best indicator that children profited from a nutrition education program about iron is:
the children select more sacks with iron
In a study on custards, which would be the dependent variable?
the cooked custard
The RD saying "this happened to me too" is an example of..
An exmple of a formative evaluation is
a pretest quiz
The lecture is a tool that...
provides the most material covered in a short time
How can you encourage preschool children to eat more fruits and veg?
have them participate in preparation
Which is the best way to teach food service workers to prepare a full liquid diet?
demonstration, then have them prepare it
Following counseling, a client is able to plan a low sodium diet. The learning domain is
A client says "I want to change my eating habits" You ask why. The learning domain is..
What is the best way to assess what a group of students has learned after diet instruction?
have them demonstrate their skills
An advantage of using focus groups
help the researcher understand participant perspectives
Serum calcium level of 11.5mg/dl will bring on a release of
calcitonin from the thyroid glands
A neonate was at the 75th percentile for weight for age at birth, and is at the 60th percentile at 6 months. This indicates that..
he is experiencing normal growth
Assessment method most appropriate for determining nutrition risk in the elderly at a health fair
A pregnant teen eats a hamburger, fries, and a diet soda. What change would make the meal more beneficial?
substitute a milkshake for the soda
What to investigate when frozen peas appear to be dull during serving
holding time during heating
In metabolic acidosis, which is involved?
excretion of sodium bicarbonate
Fats used in frying can become rancid due to the...
oxidation of unsaturated fats
Age that children should begin to be measured standing up
Normal wt gain in 1st trimester
How long does infant get colostrum
a few days
Supplements needed in pregnancy
iron and folic acid
Hormone involved in placenta development
Supplements to give a breast fed baby
vitamin D and flouride
A child who is below the 5th percentile weight for height..
may have experienced short-term under-nutrition
Hormone that regulates breast milk production
A low birth weight infant weighs
less than 2500 grams
An 18 month old child should receive which type of milk
Which measurement indicates stunted growth?
height for age
A 5 month old infant changes from 65th to 95th percentile weight for height. The RD should first..
check to see if the weights have been plotted correctly
When is breast feeding contraindicated?
when the mother has AIDS
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Nutrition and Supporting Sciences
Nutrition Midterm Vitamins
Vitamins B (Vitamins & Minerals)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Jean Inman Domain IV
Jean Inman Domain III
Jean Inman Domain II
Nutrients - Updated 12/9