How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

156 terms

Barnett Unit 2

STUDY
PLAY
Minoans
First great Greek civilization, which developed on the island of Crete in about 2000 B.C.
frescoes
Paintings done on wet plaster walls
Mycenaeans
Civilization on the Greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.
polis
Greek word for city-state, which developed around a central fort
acropolis
Hill or mountain in Greece that included a fort as well as temples and other public buildings
agora
Marketplace in a city-state in Greece
Iliad
Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War
Odyssey
Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War
Homer
Greek poet believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey.
myths
Traditional stories about gods, goddesses, and heroes
oracles
Special places where the ancient Greeks believed gods spoke through priests and priestesses
Olympic Games
Ancient Greek sports contests held every year in honor of Zeus
aristocracies
Greek city-state controlled by nobles
hoplite
Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows
tyrants
In ancient Greece, rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people's support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise absolute power brutally
popular government
Idea that people can and should rule themselves
democracy
Government in which citizens take part
helots
Conquered residents of Greece who became slaves in Spartan society
ephors
Five officials in ancient Sparta who were elected for one-year terms to make sure the king stayed within the law
metics
People living in Athens who were free but not Athenian citizens, who could work and paid taxes but were not allowed to own land or take part in government
archons
Rulers in ancient Athens who served one-year terms
Draco
Archon who created Athens's first written laws, which were very harsh
Solon
Athenian archon who abolished enslavement for debt, defined political rights in terms of wealth rather than birth, and established court of appeals
Peisistratus
Tyrant who ruled with support of lower classes but clashed with the nobles for dividing their estates among poor farmers
Cleisthenes
Athenian ruler who seized power and made Athens a direct democracy by creating the Council of Five Hundred
direct democracy
Form of democracy in which all citizens participate directly in making decisions
representative democracy
Form of government in which citizens elect representatives to run the government for them, rather than each citizen serving directly in the government
terracing
Carving small, flat plots of land from hillsides to use for farming
import
Good or service bought from another country or region
export
Good or service sold to another country or region
Sappho
Female poet from ancient Greece who often wrote about everyday Greek life
pedagogue
In ancient Greece, a male slave who taught a young boy manners
Sophists
Athenian men who opened schools for boys to study government, mathematics, ethics, and rhetoric
ethics
Study of what is good and bad, and of moral duty
rhetoric
Study of public speaking and debating
Phoenician alphabet
Alphabet created by the Phoenicians that became the model for later Western alphabets
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greece and Persia that lasted more than twenty years
Battle of Marathon
Battle in which Athenians defeated invading Persian troops led by Darius
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle in a narrow mountain pass where Spartan troops fought to the death against a much larger Persian force
Themistocles
Athenian leader who won a navy battle and helped defeat the Persians, ending the Persian Wars
Delian League
Alliance of city-states in ancient Greece led by Athens
Pericles
A great Athenian general, orator, and statesman, who brought Athens to the peak of its power
Peloponnesian War
War between Sparta and Athens that broke out in 431 B.C.
golden age
Era of cultural progress in Greece in the 400s B.C.
Acropolis
A high hill that marked the center of ancient Athens
Parthenon
White marble temple to Athena built on the Acropolis in ancient Athens, considered the finest example of Greek architecture
Myron
Greek sculptor from the golden age who sculpted The Discus Thrower
Phidias
Greek sculptor from the golden age who sculpted the statues of Athena in the Parthenon and Acropolis and the statue of Zeus at the Temple of Olympia
Praxiteles
Greek sculptor who lived 100 years after Phidias and sculpted human figures that were lifelike and natural
philosophy
The study of basic questions of reality and human existence
Socrates
Important Athenian thinker who taught that education was the key to personal growth and thought students should be trained to think for themselves
Plato
Aristocratic student of Socrates who founded the Academy for teaching philosophy and wrote The Republic
aristocracy
a government ruled by an upper class
Aristotle
One of Plato's students who believed that every field of knowledge had to be studied logically. He pioneered the process of classification and later founded his own school in Athens
Pythagoras
Greek philosopher who believed that everything could be explained in terms of mathematics and developed the Pythagorean theorem of geometry
Hippocrates
The founder of medical science
Herodotus
First historian of the Western world
dramas
Plays containing action or dialogue and involving conflict and emotion
tragedies
Forms of Greek drama in which the main character struggles against fate or events
Sophocles
One of three well-known writers of the Greek golden age, he wrote Oedipus Rex which Aristotle called a perfect example of tragedy
Euripides
Great playwright of the golden age, he wrote The Trojan Women, which showed the pain and misery of war
Aristophanes
Finest writer of Greek comedies
Philip II of Macedon
Macedonian king who conquered and united Greece under his rule
Demosthenes
Athens's finest orator, whose speeches convinced Athens to lead Greece in the fight against Philip II of Macedon
orators
Public speakers
phalanx
Military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder, carrying pikes or heavy spears
Alexander the Great
Son of Philip II of Macedon who conquered Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
Hellenistic culture
"Greek-like" way of life that combined ideas and values drawn from the Mediterranean and Asia
Zeno
Greek philosopher who established the Stoic philosophy, which suggested that people should accept their fate without complaint
Epicurus
Founder of the Epicurean philosophy, which taught that the aim of life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain
Euclid
Great Greek mathematician who helped develop geometry
Archimedes
The greatest Hellenistic scientist who calculated the value pi () and invented many machines, including the Archimedes screw
Aristarchus
Greek astronomer who correctly believed that the earth and other planets moved around the sun
Eratosthenes
Greek geographer and astronomer who calculated the distance around the earth using the angle of the sun's rays from different points on the globe
republic
Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state
dictator
Absolute ruler
consuls
Chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome.
veto
Refuse to approve (a bill or law)
checks and balance
System of government that prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful
praetors
Elected Roman officials who helped the consuls
censors
Roman officials who registered citizens according to their wealth, appointed senators, and supervised moral conduct
tribunes
Officials elected by Rome's popular assemblies who could veto actions of the Senate
patricians
Powerful landowners who inherited power to control Roman government and society
plebeians
Farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population
Punic Wars
Three costly conflicts between Rome and Carthage over control of the Mediterranean region
Hannibal
Great general of Carthage who marched across the Alps into Italy during the Second Punic War
Scipio
Roman general who defeated Hannibal in Africa during the Second Punic War
equites
Roman class of business people and landowners who had great wealth and political influence
Spartacus
Roman slave who led a slave revolt in 73 B.C.
the Gracchi
Two brothers who were each elected tribune and were each murdered by senators and their supporters for attempting reform
Gaius Marius
Roman general and consul who created an army of troops whom he rewarded with land and money and who became more loyal to him than to the government
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Consul who started and won a civil war and then ruled Rome as a dictator
Julius Caesar
Popular general and consul who formed a political alliance called the First Triumvirate with two other Roman generals, then, using the army to enforce his will, seized sole power as dictator. He expanded the boundaries of the republic, but was murdered in the Senate.
Gnaeus Pompey
Popular Roman general who joined Julius Caesar in a political alliance called the First Triumvirate, then turned against him and was defeated by him
triumvirate
Political alliance of three rulers
Cleopatra
Queen of Egypt who was put into power by Caesar and later formed an alliance with Marc Antony against Octavian, but lost to Octavian and committed suicide to avoid capture
Marc Antony
A general and ally of Caesar who formed part of the Second Triumvirate and formed an alliance with Cleopatra, but was defeated by Octavian and committed suicide to avoid capture
Augustus (Octavian)
First ruler of the Roman Empire, who greatly expanded its borders and began a period of peace that lasted for 200 years
Pax Romana
Period of Roman peace that lasted for 200 years
Julio-Claudian Emperors
Relatives of Caesar who ruled for 54 years following the death of Augustus
Five Good Emperors
Five rulers who led Rome for almost 100 years during the Pax Romana
gladiators
Trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought to the death in arenas as public entertainment
Galen
Roman doctor who wrote a summary of all medical knowledge of his time
Ptolemy
An astronomer and geographer from Alexandria who believed that the sun, the planets, and the stars revolved around the earth
aqueducts
Bridge-like structures that carry water
Virgil
Greatest Roman poet who wrote a famous epic, the Aeneid
Horace
Roman poet who wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and letters
Ovid
Roman poet who wrote love poems and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths in verse
Tacitus
Great Roman historian who wrote Annals, a history of Rome under the Julio-Claudian emperors
Plutarch
Roman writer who wrote Parallel Lives, a collection of Greek and Roman biographies
rabbis
Jewish scholars who interpreted scripture and Jewish Law
Jesus
Jewish founder of Christianity, whose teachings greatly influenced the Western world
martyrs
Persons put to death for their beliefs
bishops
Heads of the early Christian Church in major cities
patriarchs
Bishops of the major centers of the early Christian Church
pope
Title assumed by the patriarch of Rome and head of the Catholic Church; from the Latin word meaning "father"
inflation
Rise in prices caused by a decrease in the value of money
Diocletian
Roman emperor who slowed the decline of the empire by appointing a co-emperor in the West, driving out invaders, and controlling almost every aspect of life to promote security
Constantine
Roman emperor who supported Christianity and created a new capital city in the East, Constantinople
Vandals
One of several Germanic tribes who invaded the Roman Empire and sacked Rome
Huns
Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire
Attila
Hun leader who attacked the Western Roman Empire
savannas
Vast dry grasslands south of the Sahara Desert in Africa
tropical rain forests
Vast forests that receive much rainfall and have dense vegetation
jungle
Thick growth of plants found in a tropical rain forest
linguists
Scholars who study languages
Bantu
Family of closely related African languages
oral traditions
Poems, songs, and stories passed by word of mouth from one generation to another
griots
Highly trained West African speakers and entertainers who memorized oral traditions
matrilineal
Describes a society in which people trace their ancestors and inherited property through their mothers rather than through their fathers
King 'Ezana
King of Aksum who conquered Kush, converted to Christianity, and made it the official religion of his kingdom
Swahili
African culture and language that emerged in East Africa and combined elements of African, Asian, and Islamic cultures
Shona
People who migrated onto the plateau of what is known today as Zimbabwe
Tunka Manin
One of Ghana's most powerful rulers, who ruled in the A.D. 1000s.
Mansa Musa
King of Mali at its peak in the A.D. 1300s who led a mass pilgrimage to Mecca displaying the riches and power of Mali
Sonni 'Ali
Rebel leader who captured Timbuktu and established the kingdom of Songhai
Mohammed I Askia
Songhai ruler and successor to Sonni 'Al_ who made Timbuktu a center of culture, trade, and learning
strait
Narrow strip of water that connects two larger bodies of water
Beringia
Land bridge during the Ice Age that provided the means for Asians to travel to the Americas
potlatches
Ceremonial gatherings of Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest
Hohokam
Group of people who lived in the southwestern United States who abandoned their communities in the 1300s or 1400s
Pueblo
Group of people who lived in permanent settlements in the southwestern United States
adobe
Sun-dried brick used for building by the Pueblo Indians
buffalo
Large animal that roamed the Great Plains of the United States and was hunted by the Plains people
tepees
Cone-shaped tents made of buffalo hide
Hopewell
Native American group that settled in the Ohio Valley region and built earthen mounds
Mississippians
Native American group that lived in the Eastern
Woodlands and were mound-builders
Olmec
Earliest culture of Mexico, which began in about 1200 B.C.
Chavín
Earliest culture of Andean South America
Maya
One of the most advanced early people in the Americas, who occupied the Yucatán Peninsula
Toltec
People who invaded central Mexico from the north in about A.D. 800
Aztec
Wandering warriors who gained control of central Mexico in about A.D. 1200
chinampas
Raised fields made by the Aztec with mud taken from the bottoms of lakes
Inca
Empire in the Andes Mountains that included most of the west coast of South America
Quechua
Inca language spoken today by millions in South America
quipu
Series of knotted strings used as a memory aid by the Inca