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Civilization on the Greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.
Hill or mountain in Greece that included a fort as well as temples and other public buildings
Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War
In ancient Greece, rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people's support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise absolute power brutally
Five officials in ancient Sparta who were elected for one-year terms to make sure the king stayed within the law
People living in Athens who were free but not Athenian citizens, who could work and paid taxes but were not allowed to own land or take part in government
Athenian archon who abolished enslavement for debt, defined political rights in terms of wealth rather than birth, and established court of appeals
Tyrant who ruled with support of lower classes but clashed with the nobles for dividing their estates among poor farmers
Athenian ruler who seized power and made Athens a direct democracy by creating the Council of Five Hundred
Form of government in which citizens elect representatives to run the government for them, rather than each citizen serving directly in the government
Athenian men who opened schools for boys to study government, mathematics, ethics, and rhetoric
Alphabet created by the Phoenicians that became the model for later Western alphabets
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle in a narrow mountain pass where Spartan troops fought to the death against a much larger Persian force
Athenian leader who won a navy battle and helped defeat the Persians, ending the Persian Wars
A great Athenian general, orator, and statesman, who brought Athens to the peak of its power
White marble temple to Athena built on the Acropolis in ancient Athens, considered the finest example of Greek architecture
Greek sculptor from the golden age who sculpted the statues of Athena in the Parthenon and Acropolis and the statue of Zeus at the Temple of Olympia
Greek sculptor who lived 100 years after Phidias and sculpted human figures that were lifelike and natural
Important Athenian thinker who taught that education was the key to personal growth and thought students should be trained to think for themselves
Aristocratic student of Socrates who founded the Academy for teaching philosophy and wrote The Republic
One of Plato's students who believed that every field of knowledge had to be studied logically. He pioneered the process of classification and later founded his own school in Athens
Greek philosopher who believed that everything could be explained in terms of mathematics and developed the Pythagorean theorem of geometry
One of three well-known writers of the Greek golden age, he wrote Oedipus Rex which Aristotle called a perfect example of tragedy
Great playwright of the golden age, he wrote The Trojan Women, which showed the pain and misery of war
Athens's finest orator, whose speeches convinced Athens to lead Greece in the fight against Philip II of Macedon
Military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder, carrying pikes or heavy spears
Alexander the Great
Son of Philip II of Macedon who conquered Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia
"Greek-like" way of life that combined ideas and values drawn from the Mediterranean and Asia
Greek philosopher who established the Stoic philosophy, which suggested that people should accept their fate without complaint
Founder of the Epicurean philosophy, which taught that the aim of life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain
The greatest Hellenistic scientist who calculated the value pi () and invented many machines, including the Archimedes screw
Greek astronomer who correctly believed that the earth and other planets moved around the sun
Greek geographer and astronomer who calculated the distance around the earth using the angle of the sun's rays from different points on the globe
checks and balance
System of government that prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful
Roman officials who registered citizens according to their wealth, appointed senators, and supervised moral conduct
Three costly conflicts between Rome and Carthage over control of the Mediterranean region
Great general of Carthage who marched across the Alps into Italy during the Second Punic War
Two brothers who were each elected tribune and were each murdered by senators and their supporters for attempting reform
Roman general and consul who created an army of troops whom he rewarded with land and money and who became more loyal to him than to the government
Popular general and consul who formed a political alliance called the First Triumvirate with two other Roman generals, then, using the army to enforce his will, seized sole power as dictator. He expanded the boundaries of the republic, but was murdered in the Senate.
Popular Roman general who joined Julius Caesar in a political alliance called the First Triumvirate, then turned against him and was defeated by him
Queen of Egypt who was put into power by Caesar and later formed an alliance with Marc Antony against Octavian, but lost to Octavian and committed suicide to avoid capture
A general and ally of Caesar who formed part of the Second Triumvirate and formed an alliance with Cleopatra, but was defeated by Octavian and committed suicide to avoid capture
First ruler of the Roman Empire, who greatly expanded its borders and began a period of peace that lasted for 200 years
Trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought to the death in arenas as public entertainment
An astronomer and geographer from Alexandria who believed that the sun, the planets, and the stars revolved around the earth
Title assumed by the patriarch of Rome and head of the Catholic Church; from the Latin word meaning "father"
Roman emperor who slowed the decline of the empire by appointing a co-emperor in the West, driving out invaders, and controlling almost every aspect of life to promote security
Roman emperor who supported Christianity and created a new capital city in the East, Constantinople
Describes a society in which people trace their ancestors and inherited property through their mothers rather than through their fathers
King of Aksum who conquered Kush, converted to Christianity, and made it the official religion of his kingdom
African culture and language that emerged in East Africa and combined elements of African, Asian, and Islamic cultures
King of Mali at its peak in the A.D. 1300s who led a mass pilgrimage to Mecca displaying the riches and power of Mali
Mohammed I Askia
Songhai ruler and successor to Sonni 'Al_ who made Timbuktu a center of culture, trade, and learning
Land bridge during the Ice Age that provided the means for Asians to travel to the Americas
Group of people who lived in the southwestern United States who abandoned their communities in the 1300s or 1400s
Large animal that roamed the Great Plains of the United States and was hunted by the Plains people
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