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Management Chapter Twelve
Terms in this set (102)
a collection of people who interact to undertake a task but do not necessarily perform as a unit or achieve significant performance improvements
a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
teams that make or do things like manufacture, assemble, sell, or provide service
project and development teams
teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed
teams that operate separately from the regular work structure, and exist temporarily
teams that coordinate and give direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among the subunits
work groups composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries
teas that are physically dispersed and communicate electronically more than face-to-face
well defined, a clear part of the formal organizational structure, and composed of a full-time, stable membership--what most people think of when they think of teams in an organization
project and development teams
often formed for new projects, team members usually must contribute expert knowledge and judgment
parallel teams, recommend, authority
Members of _____ often come from different units or jobs and are asked to do work that is not normally done by the standard structure. They are there to _____ solutions, do not have _____ to act.
based on authority stemming from hierarchical rank and is responsible for the overall performance of the business subunit
differ from other work teas by often being geographically dispersed, being psychologically distance, and working on highly complex projects having considerable impact on company objectives
Transnational teams tend to be _____.
identity, in touch, relationships, chance, sharing, rewarding
A virtual team encounters difficult challenges--building trust, cohesion, and team _____. Managers can overcome these challenges by ensuring that members understand how they are supposed to keep _____, setting aside times at the beginning of virtual meetings to build _____, ensuring that all participants in meetings and on message boards have a _____ to communicate, _____ meeting minutes and progress reports, and recognizing and _____ team members' contributions.
traditional work groups
groups that have no managerial responsibilities
voluntary groups of people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions about quality (no authority)
semiautonomous work groups
groups that make decisions about managing and carrying out major production activities but get outside support for quality control and maintenance
autonomous work groups
groups that control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks
teams with the responsibilities of autonomous work groups, plus control over hiring, firing, and deciding what task members perform
autonomous work groups in which workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by first-line supervisors
autonomous work groups
are fully responsible for an entire product or an entire part of a production process
The trend today is toward what type of team?
Self-managed teams are found most often in _____. People may resist such teams because they don't want so much _____.
semiautonomous and autonomous
Which two types of teams are known to improve the organization's financial and overall performance, at least in North America?
traditional work groups, quality circles, high-performance work teams, semiautonomous work groups, autonomous work groups, self-designing teams
six types of teams on a scale from low team autonomy to high team autonoy
forming, norming, storming, performing
the four stages of team development
Groups that deteriorate move to a _____ stage of team development.
Temporary groups add an _____ or terminating stage of team development.
first meeting, midway point
Two Critical Periods Groups Enter: 1. the _____ during the forming stage when rules and roles are established that set long-lasting precedents. 2. the _____ between the initial meeting and a deadline, when the group has enough experience to understand its work and must re-open communication
supervisory, participative, team
three forms of team leadership
declining and adjourning
two additional stages of team development had by some groups
when the team leader handles most (if not all) of the leadership duties, including assigning tasks, making and explaining decisions, training team members, managing members one-on-one, and so forth
when the team leader seeks input from group members for decisions, provides assignments and experiences to develop members' skills and abilities, coordinates group effort, and the like
when the team leader's job focuses on building trust and inspiring teamwork, facilitating and supporting team decisions, broadening team capabilities through projects and assignments, creating a team identity, and so forth
communication, charter, trust, empowered
Why might a team fail? There may be poor _____. The team may lack a _____, vision, or goals. A lack of _____ can get in the way. Teams must be truly _____.
productive output, satisfaction, committed
Criteria of Team Effectiveness: 1. The _____ of the team meets of exceeds the standards of quantity and quality, 2. team members realize _____ of their personal needs, 3. team members remain _____ to working together again (not burned out).
common purpose, understanding, performance, measurement, feedback
The key element of effective teamwork is commitment to a _____. The best teams develop a common _____ of how they will work together to achieve this. General purpose goals should be translated into specific, measurable _____ goals. Ideally the team plays the lead role in designing its own _____ system. _____ from many sources is crucial.
working less hard and being less productive when in a group
social facilitation effect
working harder when in a group than when working alone
.know, communicate, performance, meaningful, matter, advantage, teamwork
Social Facilitation Effect
occurs when: group members _____ each other, they can observe and _____ with one another, clear _____ goals exist, the task is _____ to the people working on it, group members believe that their efforts _____ and that others will not take _____ of them, and the culture supports _____.
rewards, validly, behaviors
Ultimately teamwork is motivated by tying _____ to team performance. If this can be measured _____, team-based rewards can be given accordingly. But if tea performance is difficult to measure validly, then desired _____, activities, and processes that indicate good teamwork can be rewarded.
should not, team members
If team members are to be rewarded differentially, such decisions _____ be left only to the boss. _____ are in a better position to observe, know, and make valid reward allocations.
Team members should be _____ and _____ so that they become effective contributors to the team.
shared beliefs about how people should think and behave
different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave
an individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members possess
team maintenance specialist
an individual who develops and maintains team harmony
Norms can be _____ or _____. (In some teams, everyone works hard; in others, employees hate management and do as little work as possible.)
Although _____ apply generally to all team members, different _____ exist for different members within the norm structure.
task specialist and team maintenance specialist
two important sets of roles that must be performed
keep the team moving toward accomplishment of the objectives
team maintenance specialists
boost morale, give support, provide humor, soothe hurt feelings, and generally exhibit a concern with members' well-being
exhibiting social and political awareness, caring for team members, and building trust
relating, scouting, persuading, empowering
four things that superior team leaders are better at (roles)
seeking information from managers, peers, and specialists, and investigating problems systematically
influencing team members, as well as obtaining external support for teams
delegating authority, being flexible regarding team decisions, and coaching
a management representative to whom
report (usually not an actual member of the team), a resource
refers to how tightly knit the team is
member satisfaction, performance
Primary Reasons that
is Important: 1. It contributes to _____, 2. It has a major impact on _____.
task and performance norms
The ultimate outcome of when high cohesiveness leads to good performance and when it results in poor performance depends on what two things?
poor, groupthink, constructive, high, tangible
If the task is to
make a decision or solve a problem,
cohesiveness can lead to ____ performance due to _____. A norm of _____ disagreement should be established. If the task is
however, the effective of cohesiveness can lead to _____ performance, particularly if the task is to produce some _____ output.
the degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another
Are cohesive or noncohesive groups better at
The _____ performance occurs when a cohesive team has
norms. But if a highly cohesive group has
norms, that group will have the _____ performance.
company, could, poorly, ruin
Noncohesive groups with high-performance norms can be effective from the _____'s standpoint, but they won't be as productive as they _____ be if they were cohesive. Noncohesive groups with low-performance norms perform as _____, but they will not _____ things for management as much as cohesive groups with low-performance norms.
similar, socialization, small, help, publicize, participative, outside, rewards
Cohesive and High-Performance
Teams: 1. recruit members with _____ attitudes, values, and backgrounds, 2. maintain high entrance and _____ standards, 3. keep the team as _____ as possible, 4. _____ the team succeed and _____ its successes, 5. be a _____ leader, 6. present a challenge from _____ the team, 7. tie _____ to team performance
a team member who keeps abreast of current developments and provides the team with relevant information
a team strategy that entails making decisions with the team and then informing outsiders of its intentions
a team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility
a team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their needs, and experiment with solutions
informing, parading, probing
probing, parading, informing
When teams have a high degree of dependence on outsiders, _____ is the best strategy. _____ teams perform at an intermediate level, and _____ are likely to fail (too isolated).
work flow relationships
emerge as materials are passed from one group to another
exist when top management centralizes an activity to which a large number of other units must gain access (technology, libraries, clerical, etc.)
created when teams with problems call on centralized sources of expert knowledge (HR or legal)
develop when people not directly in the chain of command evaluate the methods and performances of other teams
involve auditing before the fact--teams sometimes must obtain clearance before they act (for large purchases, for example)
involve intermediaries between teams
a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
a reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement
Conflict can foster creativity when it is about _____ rather than _____.
productive, solved, strengthened
In conflict management, the aim is to make the conflict _____. People believe they have benefited from a conflict when they see these outcomes: 1. A new solution is implemented, the problem is _____, and it is unlikely to emerge again, 2. work relationships have been _____, and people believe they can work together productively in the future.
a style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one's own interests
a style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties' concerns
a style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one's own goals and little or no concern for the other person's goals
a style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize both parties' satisfaction
higher-level goals taking priority over specific individual or group goals
competing, avoiding, compromising, collaborating, accommodating
five conflict management strategies
a third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict
investigate, decide, take action, follow up
Four-Stage Strategy of Mediating Disputes: 1. _____ by interviewing the disputants and others and gathering more information, 2. _____ how to resolve the dispute, often in conjunction with the disputants' bosses, 3. _____ by explaining their decisions and the reasoning, and advise or train the disputants on how to avoid future incidents, 4. _____ by making sure everything understands the solution, documenting the conflict and the resolution, and monitoring the results by checking back with the disputants and their bosses.
, sometimes ____ hurts performance and _____ helps it.
_____ approaches focus on the differentiation of tasks with an emphasis on the pieces, and information flow is vertical. _____ approaches focus on integrating the tasks with an emphasis on the whole, and information flow is horizontal.
A work team would probably be composed of people from _____ division(s). A project and development team would probably be composed of people from _____ division(s).
_____ is often done implicitly rather than explicitly.
agendas, information, opinion, elaborating, consensus
Make an _____ to know what you plan to accomplish at a meeting. To get the work done, include _____ seeking and giving, _____ seeking and giving, clarifying and _____, summarizing and _____ testing.
can clarify and focus the work
team maintenance specialist
helps turn any conflict into a positive
lack of response, formal authority, self-authority, majority rule, consensus
five ways to make decisions on a team
What is another term for decision by lack of response? Which is the best decision?
Some team members must manage _____ by gatekeeping, informing, parading, and probing. They must also _____ with others with work flow relationships, service relationships, advisory relationships, and liaison relationships.
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