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Elements of Art, Principles of Design, Perspective Vocabulary

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Line
A mark that connects 2 points and is greater in length than in width
Shape
A closed line creates this. These are 2D, flat and vary
Form
A 3D shape that expresses length, width and depth
Value
Defines the lightness and darkness of an object or area. Every color has one of these
Color
This represents the wavelengths of white light reflected off objects
Space
The area between and around objects - real ___ is 3D. The feeling/illusion of this can be created in 2D artwork
Texture
A surface quality that can be seen or felt - rough, smooth, hard, soft
Balance
The distribution of the visual weight in a composition to achieve a sense of stability
Unity
Arranging the elements of a composition so that they hold together with a sense of completeness
Emphasis
The part of the composition that catches the viewer's attention, differentiating the more important from less important parts of the piece
Contrast
Refers to differences in values, colors, textures, and other elements to achieve emphasis and contrast
Pattern
The repetition of an object or symbol all over the artwork. This may be achieved by the repitition/combination of lines, colors and shapes
Movement
The path the viewer's eye takes through the composition
Rhythm
Created when one or more elements of art are use repeatedly to create a feeling of organized movement
Rule of Thirds
Technique which guides you in creating an interesting composition. Rule of thumb taking a rectangular shape and dividing it into thirds
Still Life
A painting of inanimate and different objects (most likely related by a theme)
Thumbnail Sketch
Small rough sketch of a design
Contour Line Drawing
A drawing exercise with a continuous line that never breaks
Proportion
The relation between elements and a whole
Linear Perspective
The appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer (tricks the eye into seeing depth on a flat surface)
Atmospheric Perspective
Backgrounds seem fuzzy, gray and distant. Colors are not as vibrant as in foreground. It is a useful artistic tool for showing distance, especially in a painting
Positive Space
Space of content in a painting of an object or person
Negative Space
Space of content in a painting of background or blank space
Foreshortening
Where an object in the foreground is drawn dramatically shorter than it is in real life to show depth
Horizon Line
Actual or imaginary line in art representing the point at which water or land seems to end and the sky begins
Bird's Eye View
Line of sight/horizon line is above object
Worm's Eye View
Line of sight/horizon line is below object
Person's Eye View
Line of sight/horizon line is equal to viewer's eye
Overlapping
When one object sits on top and partially hides another object
Diminishing Size
Objects in the background appear to be very small, especially the farther away it is
Chiaroscuro
In Italian, it means light and dark. It is a technique showing strong modeling/shading with a great deal of contrast between lights and darks