Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement
It is any event or stimulus that, when following a response, causes that response to be less likely to happen again. Punishment By Application:
When something unpleasant (e.g., spanking, scolding, or other unpleasant stimulus) is added or applied to the situation
Punishment By Removal:
Most often confused with negative reinforcement.
The removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs (e.g., grounding, time-out, fines, taking away TV privileges). Should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish
Should be consistent
Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior.
Charles Spearman saw intelligence as two different abilities
G (General Intelligence) Factor—the ability to reason and solve problems
S (Specific Intelligence) Factor—task-specific abilities in certain areas (e.g., music, business, art, etc.).
The existence of several kinds of intelligence
His 9 types are verbal, musical, logical, visual, movement, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, existentialist.
Critics say that these are only abilities and not necessarily the same thing as intelligence.