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Global I Review for Unit Ten
Terms in this set (50)
By traveling west, he concluded he would arrive in the East. His voyages were financed by Spain and he accidentally landed in the Americas thereby changing world history.
Native American Indians lacked domesticated animals and therefore lacked immunities to many of the world's deadliest diseases. When Columbus and the Europeans arrived, this disease in particular decimated the indigenous population of the Americas.
God, Glory and Gold
The Spaniards conquered for specific reasons. There was the desire to convert the indigenous peoples to Catholicism. There was the desire for fame. And there was the desire for bullion or gold and silver. These were the reasons for Spain's conquest of the Americas.
It literally means a conqueror. Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro were conquerors of significant civilizations of the Americas.
This Spanish conquistador defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico. The Aztec king initially had a vision that this conqueror was an Aztec god but quickly the Spaniards thirst for gold made the king realize the error of his belief.
This Spanish conquistador conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima. He kidnapped the Inca king, Atahualpa, and ordered a room full of gold. After he received the gold, he strangled the king.
In the conquered Americas - colonial Spanish America - the most powerful individuals were born in Spain. They received the most land and the highest posts in colonial government. This is the name they were called.
It was essentially Indian slavery. A Spaniard was given a plot of land and the Indians on the land. The Indians had to labor on the land. The Indians were enslaved.
The Great Dying
This term refers to the great number of American Indians who died as a result of new diseases introduced by the Spaniards. In some areas, ninety percent of American Indians died from diseases.
The Atlantic Slave Trade
As a result of the Great Dying or the deaths of many Native American Indians, a labor shortage existed in the Americas. Europeans turned to Africa for slaves thereby leading to this - which lasted from the 1500s to the 1800s.
The Middle Passage
It refers to the journey of the African slave from Africa to the Americas. It was a brutal journey and many slaves died on the journey due to the overcrowding, poor sanitation and cruelty.
African slaves were brought to the Americas primarily to grow this crop. This crop was very profitable. The primary destinations were Brazil and the Caribbean Islands. Eighty percent of African slaves were brought to Brazil and the Caribbean Islands.
An Effect of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa
Warfare increased. As some African kingdoms supplied slaves to Europeans, other African societies were decimated by the loss of enslaved peoples. This increased conflict within Africa.
It is a scattering of people. It is a dispersion of people from their homeland. When Jews were forced from their homeland due to Roman persecution, this occurred. When Africans were brought to the Americas and enslaved, this occurred. Africans do not live solely in Africa. Africans live in many lands.
New Crops from the Americas
Corn and potatoes were indigenous to the Americas. These crops were highly caloric. As a result of Columbus' accidental arrival in the Americas, these crops were brought to Europe, Africa and Asia. In Europe and Asia, corn and potatoes greatly increased population. These crops would have had a similar impact on Africa but the Atlantic Slave Trade offset any gains in population.
The Columbian Exchange
It was the exchange of plants, animals, people, diseases and ideas that resulted from Columbus' accidental arrival in the Europeans and the subsequent global cultural diffusion that occurred. It profoundly shaped every habitable land.
It is the belief that colonies benefit the mother country. Colonies only trade with the mother country. Colonies only export raw materials and import finished goods from the mother country. Colonies provide bullion or gold and silver to the mother country.
This was a person of mixed European and Native American Indian ancestry. In Latin America, many Spaniards were single men who came to the "New World" to make their fortunes. They often married indigenous women. Their offspring were called mestizo - a Spanish term that means mixed.
It is a political system. In this form of government, a royal monarch - a king or queen -
has all governmental powers. The monarch's power is unlimited. The monarch has all legislative or law-making power, executive or leadership power, and judicial or justice (the power of the courts) power. The monarch can do as the monarch pleases.
Divine Right Theory
It is the belief that the monarch's power comes from God and the monarch is God's representative on Earth. According to this belief, no ordinary man can question or challenge the king. The king's power comes from God.
This monarch was known as the Sun King. He was an absolute monarch and his power was unlimited. He forced his nobles to live in his palace at Versailles in order to watch and control them. He fought many wars and later regretted how the taxes needed for those wars harmed the people of France.
"L'etat c'est moi"
It means "I am the state." It was uttered by Louis XIV of France. It signified that he had all of the powers of government: legislative, executive and judicial. It signified that his power had no limits and that whatever he decided was the law of the land.
These French Protestants faced persecution or mistreatment under Louis XIV. Many of them migrated to the "New World" in order to escape the dreadful persecution they experienced. Louis XIV wanted a Catholic France with no Protestants.
Peter the Great
As the absolute monarch of Russia, this Russian Tsar wanted to modernize and westernize Russia. He visited the West and personally learned how to build ships. He returned to Russia and built Russia's first navy.
A Warm-Water Port
Russia is a very cold land. The water that borders its coast is often frozen for part of the year. In order to compete with the West and to allow a Russian navy to move and prosper, he needed this. He needed a harbor that could be used year round.
In order to get his warm-water port, Peter the Great needed to gain territory on the Baltic Sea. This territory would allow for a warm-water port. This land, however, was controlled by these country. Peter had to fight two wars to gain this land. In the first war, he lost. His troops were not able to compete with a modern army. In the second war, he won.
This group greatly benefited from Peter the Great's Westernization. Before his program of Westernization, women were largely secluded from public life. But Peter had learned that women in Western Europe socialized with men in public. So Peter insisted that women and men dance together at public gatherings.
It is the adoption of ideas, technology and even culture from Western Europe. Today the term would include Western Europe and the United States. As Western Europe experienced a Scientific Revolution in the 1500s, it had technologies that were coveted by people in other lands. Thus, this occurred in order for other lands to compete in the modern era.
English Civil War (1642-1649)
It was a conflict over royal power versus parliamentary rights and it was caused by King Charles I's arrest of his parliamentary critics and it ended with the king's execution. Its outcome checked the growth of royal absolutism led to a limited monarchy in England.
The Puritan Revolution
It is a reference to the English Civil War (1642-1646). It was waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or in Parliament. Parliament won.
A group consisting of Puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers led by Oliver Cromwell. These supporters of Parliament fought against the Cavaliers or Royalists during the English Civil War.
This English general and statesman led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658) and was the leader of the Roundheads. After Parliament's victory in the English Civil War, he ruled as a dictator. He removed all vices from society: no dancing, no drinking and no gambling. The English did not enjoy his dictatorship and when he died, a monarch was invited back to rule.
The Glorious Revolution
It is a reference to the political events of 1688-1689 when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange. James II was acting like an absolute monarch and Parliament would have none of it. James II wisely fled and William and Mary ruled. England was now a parliamentary democracy or a limited monarchy.
Limited Monarchy (Constitutional Monarchy)
It is a system of government in which the monarch is limited by a representative assembly and by the duty to rule in accordance with the laws of the land. The monarch may not do whatever he chooses. The monarch must obey the law and share power with Parliament.
It is a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation. In England, Parliament became supreme after the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution. Yes, there was a monarch but only Parliament could levy taxes.
Magna Carta (1215)
It was an English document drawn up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America. It was signed in 1215 and it is a Latin term meaning "Great Charter." It essentially said that the King could not imprison or fine a man unless that man broke the law. It effectively made the law more powerful than the king. It is a foundational document for democracy.
It was a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs. It was an intellectual movement that emphasized observation and experimentation. It challenged the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.
It was a tax on those men in Russian who wore beards by Peter the Great as a method of Westernizing Russia. Those who had beards were required to carry a token stating that they had paid their beard tax. It was a form of superficial Westernization. Peter the Great wanted Russian men to look and dress like the men of Western Europe, what Peter deemed modern men.
This Polish astronomer and clergyman was asked to create a more accurate calendar by the Roman Catholic Pope. In order to make the math work, he had to place the sun in the center of the solar system. He wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres but the book was not published until he was on his deathbed. He feared his challenge to the Roman Catholic Church's geocentric model of the universe.
This Italian astronomer and mathematician was the first to use a telescope to study the stars. He supported the Copernican model or heliocentric model and was punished by the Inquisition or the Catholic Court to punish heretics for challenging the Roman Catholic Church and believing that the sun was the center of the universe. He did, however, recant. Though it is believed that he whispered, "But it does move" - the earth that is - around the sun.
It is a sun-centered model of the solar system. The sun is at the center of all things - at least, in this universe. It was a model supported by Copernicus and later Galileo and it is correct. The planets revolve around the sun. Helio is Greek for sun.
It is the belief that the earth is at the center of the universe and that the sun and the planets revolve around the earth. It was challenged by Copernicus and it was proved to be false. The earth is not at the center of the universe. The earth revolves around the sun.
The Bible and Aristotle
In the Middle Ages, "science" was "proved" by this sacred book of Christians or by certain ancient Greek philosophers. If this book or these philosophers had supported it, the Church generally agreed. Of course, that is not how science works. Science works through observation and experimentation.
The Scientific Method
It is a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions. Science is all about observation and experimentation. Seeing - when it comes to science - is believing.
Sir Isaac Newton
This great English scientist, of course, gave the world the concept of gravity but he was more than just that. He offered hope that all things in nature could be understood, that all natural laws could be learned and revealed. He suggested that the universe is like a clock and its functioning could be known.
It is clear and ordered thinking; it is logical thinking. It is the foundation of science. Without it, science becomes superstition. In science, it must be used in order to uncover the secrets of the universe.
It was a Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy. A heretic is a person who does not believe in the official teachings of the Church. Galileo was charged with heresy when he publicly supported the heliocentric model of the universe.
This great English thinker developed the scientific method. He believed in experimentation and reason and observation. He believed in proof.
This French philosopher wrote, "I think therefore I am". He was the father of modern rationalism.
Rationalism is reason in thinking. He believed in proof.
Observation and Experimentation
It is the basis of all science. In modern science, ideas can never become facts without proof, without data, without experimentation. In science, all things must be proven, all things must be seen.
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