MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM

Defined Terms
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3G networks
Cellular network based on packet-switched technology with speeds ranging from 144 Kbps for mobile users to over 2 Mbps for stationery users, enabling users to transmit video, graphics, and other rich media, in addition to voice.
4G networks
The next evolution in wireless communication is entirely packet switched and capable or providing between 1 Mbps and Gbps speed; up to ten times faster than 3G networks. Not widely adopted in 2010.
acceptable use policy (AUP)
Defines acceptable uses of the firm's information resources and computing equipment, including desktop and laptop computers, wireless devices, telephones, and the internet, and specifies consequences for noncompliance.
acceptance testing
Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
accountability
The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken.
accumulated balance digital payment systems
Systems enabling users to make micropayments and purchases on the Web, accumulating a debit balance on their credit card telephone bills.
affiliate revenue model
an e-commerce revenue model in which web sites are paid as "affiliates" for sending their visitors to other sites in return for a referral fee.
agent-based modelling
Modelling complex phenomena as systems of autonomous agents that follow relatively simple rules for interaction.
agency theory
Economic theory that views the firm as a nexus of contracts among self-interested individuals who must supervised and managed.
agile development
Rapid delivery of working software by breaking a large project into a series of small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and continuous feedback.
Ajax
Development technique for creating interactive Web applications capable of updating the user interface without reloading the entire browser page.
analog signal
A continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium; used for voice communications.
analytical CRM
Customer relationship management applications dealing with the analysis of customer data to provide information for improving business performance.
Android
A mobile operating system developed by Android, Inc. (purchased by Google) and later the Open Handset Alliance as flexible, upgradeable mobile device platform.
antivirus software
Software designed to detect, and often eliminate, computer viruses form an information system.
application controls
Specific controls unique to each computerized application that ensure that only authorized data are completely and accurately processed by that application
application server
Software that handles all application operations between browser-based computers and a company's back-end business applications or databases.
application software package
A set of prewritten, precoded application software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease.
application software
Programs written for a specific application to perform functions specified by end users.
apps
Small pieces of software that run on the Internet, on your computer, or on your cell phone and are generally delivered over the internet.
artificial intelligence (AI)
The effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making.
attribute
A piece of information describing a particular entity.
augmented reality
A technology for enhancing visualization. Provides a live direct or indirect view of physical real-world environment whose elements are augmented by virtual computer-generated imagery.
authentication
The ability of each party in a transaction to ascertain the identity of the other party.
authorization management systems
Systems for allowing each user access only to those portions of a system or the Web that person is permitted to enter, based on information established by a set of access rules.
authorization policies
Determine differing levels of access to information assets for differing levels of users in an organization.
automation
Using the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks.
autonomic computing
Effort to develop systems that can manage themselves without user intervention.
backward chaining
A strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that acts like a problem solver by beginning with a hypothesis and seeking out more information until the hypothesis is either proved or disproved.
balance scorecard method
Framework for operationalizing a firms strategic plan by focusing on measurable financial, business process, customer, and learning and growth outcomes of firm performance.
bandwidth
The capacity of a communications channel as measured by the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be transmitted by the channel.
banner ad
A graphic display on a Web page used for advertising. The banner is linked to the advertiser's Web site that a person clicking on it will be transported to the advertiser's Web site.
batch processing
A method of collecting and processing data in which transactions are accumulated and stored until a specified time when it is convenient or necessary to process them as a group.
baud
A change in signal from positive to negative or vice versa that is used as a measure of transmission speed.
behavioral model
Descriptions of management based on behavioural scientists' of what managers actually do in their jobs.
behavioral targeting
Tracking the click-streams (history of clicking behavior) of individuals across multiple Web sites for the purpose of understanding their interests and intentions, and exposing them to advertisements which are uniquely suited to their interests.
benchmarking
Setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards.
best practices
the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry.
biometric authentication
Technology for authenticating system users that compares a person's unique characteristics such as fingerprints, face, or retinal image, against a stored set profile of these characteristics.
bit
A binary digit representing the smallest unit of data in a computer system. It can only have one or two states, representing 0 or 1.
blade server
Entire computer that fits on a single, thin card (or blade) and that is plugged into a single chassis to save space, power and complexity.
blog
Popular term for Weblog, designating an informal yet structured Web site where individuals can publish stories, opinions, and links to other Web sites of interest.
blogosphere
Totally of blog-related Web sites.
Bluetooth
Standard for wireless personal area networks that can transmit up to 722 Kbps within a 10-meter area.
botnet
A group of computers that have been infected with bot malware without users' knowledge, enabling a hacker to use the amassed resources of the computers to launch distributed denial-of-service attacks, phishing campaigns or spam.
broadband
High-speed transmission technology. Also designates a single communications medium that can transmit multiple channels of data simultaneously.
bugs
Software program code defects.
bullwhip effect
Distortion of information about demand for a product as it passes from one entity to the next across the supply chain.
bus topology
Network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuit with all messages broadcast to the entire network.
business continuity planning
Planning that focuses on how the company can restore business operations after a disaster strikes.
business driver
A force in the environment to which businesses must respond and that influences the direction of business.
business ecosystem
Loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers.
business functions
Specialized tasks performed in a business organization including manufacturing and production, sales and marketing, finance and accounting and human resources.
business intelligence
Applications and technologies to help users make better business decisions.
business model
An abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth.
business performance management
Attempts to systematically translate a firm's strategies (e.g., differentiation, low-cost producer, market share growth, and scope of operation) into operational targets.
business process management
Business process management (BPM) is an approach to business which aims to continuously improve and manage and mange business processes.
business process redesign
Type of organizational change in which business processes are analyzed, simplified, and redesigned
business processes
The unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize work activities, information, and knowledge to produce a product or service.
business-to-business (B2B) electronic commerce
Electronic sales of goods and services among businesses.
business-to-consumer (B2C) electronic commerce
Electronic retailing of products and services directly to individual consumers.
byte
A string of bits, usually eight, used to store one number or character in a computer system.
cable Internet connections
Internet connections that use digital cable lines to deliver high-speed Internet access to homes and businesses.
call center
An organizational department responsible for handling customer service issues by telephone and other channels.
capacity planning
The process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated to ensure that adequate computing resources are available for work of different priorities and that the firm has enough computing power for its current and future needs.
capital budgeting
The process of analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Type of RSI in which the pressure on the median nerve through the wrist's bony carpal tunnel structure produces pain.
case-based reasoning (CBR)
Artificial intelligence technology that represents knowledge as a database of cases and solutions.
cell phone
A device that transmits voice or data, using radio waves to communicate with with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic areas called cells.
centralized processing
Processing that is accomplished by one large central computer.
change agent
In the context of of implementation, the individual acting as the catalyst during the change process to ensure successful organizational adaption to a new system or innovation.
change management
Managing the impact of organizational change associated with an innovation, such as a new information system.
channel conflict
Competition between two or more different distribution chains used to sell to sell the products or services of the same company.
channel
The link by which data or voice are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network.
chat
Live, interactive conversations over a public network.
chief information officer (CIO)
Senior manager in charge of the information systems function in the firm.
chief knowledge officer (CKO)
Senior executive in charge of the organization's knowledge management program.
chief privacy officer (CPO)
Responsible for ensuring the company complies with existing data privacy laws.
chief security officer
Heads a formal security function for the organization and is responsible for enforcing the firm's security policy.
choice
Simon's third stage of decision making, when the individual selects among the various solution alternatives.
Chrome OS
Googles lightweight computer operating system for users who do most of their computing on the internet; runs on computers ranging from netbooks to desktop computers.
churn rate
Measurement of the number of customers who stop using or purchasing products or services from a company. Used as an indicator of the growth or decline of a firm's customer base.
classical model of management
Traditional description of managment that focused on its formal functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling.
click fraud
Fraudulently clicking on an online ad in pay per click advertising to generate an improper charge per click.
clicks-and-mortar
Business model where the Web site is an extension of a traditional bricks-and-mortar business.
clickstream tracking
Tracking data about customer activities at Web sites and storing them in a log.
client
The user point-of-entry for the required function in client/server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer.
client/server computing
A model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network, assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.
cloud computing
Web-based applications that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the "cloud" of the internet using a standard Web browser.
coaxial cable
A transmission medium consisting of thickly insulated copper wire, can transmit large volumes of data quickly.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Major cellular transmission standard in the United States that transmits over several frequencies, occupies the entire spectrum, and randomly assigns users to a range of frequencies over time.
collaboration
Working with others to achieve shared and explicit goals.
collaborative commerce
The use of digital technologies to enable multiple organizations to collaboratively design, develop, build, and manage products through their life cycles.
collaborative filtering
Tracking users' movements on a Web site, comparing the information gleaned about a user's behavior against data about other customers with similar interests to predict what the user would like to see next.
collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
Firms collaborating with their suppliers and buyers to formulate demand forecasts, develop production plans, and coordinate shipping, warehousing, and stocking activities.
co-location
a kind of Web site hosting in which firm purchase or rent a physical server computer at a hosting company's location in order to operate a Web site.
community provider
a Web site business model that creates a digital online environment where people with similar interests can transact; share interests, photos, videos; communicate with like-minded people' receive interest-related information; and play out fantasies by adopting online personalities called avatars.
competitive forces model
Model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organization's strategy and ability to compete.
complementary assets
Additional assets required to derive value from a primary investment.
component-based development
Building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components.
computer
Physical device that takes data as an input, transforms the data by executing stored instructions, and outputs information to a number of devices.
computer abuse
The commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical
computer crime
The commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system.
computer forensics
The scientific collection, examination, authentication, preservation, and analysis of data held on or retrieved from computer storage media in such a way that the information can be used as evidence in a court of law.
computer hardware
Physical equipment used for input, processing, and output activities in an information system.
computer literacy
Knowledge about information technology, focusing on understanding of how computer-based technologies work.
computer software
Detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the work of the computer hardware components in an information system.
computer virus
Rogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed, often causing hardware and software malfunctions.
computer vision syndrome (CVS)
Eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use; symptoms include headaches, blurred vision, and dry irritated eyes.
computer-aided design (CAD)
Information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software.
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
computer-based information systems (CBIS)
Information systems that rely on computer hardware and software for processing and disseminating information.
connectivity
The ability of computers and computer-based devices to communicate with each other and share information in a meaningful way without human intervention.
consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
electronic commerce Consumers selling goods and services electronically to other consumers.
controls
All of the methods, policies, and procedures that ensure protection of the organization's assets, accuracy and reliability of its records, and operational adherence to management standards.
conversion
The process of changing from the old system to the new system.
cookies
Tiny file deposited on a computer hard drive when an individual visits certain Web sites. Used to identify the visitor and track visits to the Web site.
cooptation
Bringing the opposition into the process of designing and implementing a solution without giving up control of the direction and nature of the change.
copyright
A statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a minimum of 70 years.
core competency
Activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader.
core systems
Systems that support functions that are absolutely critical to the organization.
cost transperency
the ability of consumers to discover the actual costs merchants pay for products.
counterimplementation
A deliberate strategy to thwart the implementation of an information system or an innovation in an organization.
critical success factors (CSFs)
A small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. Used to determine the information requirements of an organization.
cross-selling
Marketing complementary products to customers.
crowdsourcing
Using large Internet audiences for advice, market feedback, new ideas and solutions to business problems. Related to the 'wisdom of crowds' theory.
culture
The set of fundamental assumptions about what products the organization should produce, how and where it should produce them, and for whom they should be produced.
customer lifetime value (CLTV)
Difference between revenues produced by a specific customer and the expenses for acquiring and servicing that customer minus the cost of promotional marketing over the lifetime of the customer relationship, expressed in today's dollars.
customer relationship management (CRM)
Business and technology discipline that uses information systems to coordinate all of the business processes surrounding the firm's interactions with its customers in sales, marketing, and service.
customer relationship management systems
Information systems that track all the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyze these interactions to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction, and customer retention.
customization
The modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity.
cybervandalism
Intentional disruption, defacement, or destruction of a Web site or corporate information system.
data
Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use.
data administration
A special organizational function for managing the organization's data resources, concerned with information policy, data planning, maintenance of data dictionaries, and data quality standards.
data cleansing
Activities for detecting and correcting data in a database or file that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant. Also known as data scrubbing.
data definition
DBMS capability that specifies the structure and content of the database.
data dictionary
An automated or manual tool for storing and organizing information about the data maintained in a database.
data-driven DSS
A system that supports decision making by allowing users to extract and analyze useful information that was previously buried in large databases.
data element
A field.
data flow diagram (DFD)
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow
of data between them.
data governance
Policies and processes for managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the firm's data.
data inconsistency
The presence of different values for same attribute when the same data are stored in multiple locations.
data management software
Software used for creating and
manipulating lists, creating files and databases to store data, and
combining information for reports.
data manipulation language
A language associated with a database management system that end users and programmers use to
manipulate data in the database.
data mart
A small data warehouse containing only a portion of the organization's data for a specified function or population of users.
data mining
Analysis of large pools of data to find patterns and rules that can be used to guide decision making and predict future behavior.
data quality audit
A survey and/or sample of files to determine accuracy and completeness of data in an information system.
data redundancy
Te presence of duplicate data in multiple data files.
data visualization
Technology for helping users see patterns and relationships in large amounts of data by presenting the data in graphical form.
data warehouse
A database, with reporting and query tools, that stores current and historical data extracted from various operational systems and consolidated for management reporting and analysis.
data workers
People such as secretaries or bookkeepers who process the organization's paperwork.
database
A group of related files.
database (rigorous definition)
A collection of data organized to service many applications at the same time by storing and managing data so that they appear to be in one location.
database administration
Refers to the more technical and
operational aspects of managing data, including physical database
design and maintenance.
database management system (DBMS)
Special software to create
and maintain a database and enable individual business applications to extract the data they need without having to create separate files or data definitions in their computer programs.
database server
A computer in a client/server environment that is responsible for running a DBMS to process SQL statements and perform database management tasks.
dataconferencing
Teleconferencing in which two or more users are able to edit and modify data files simultaneously.
decisional roles
Mintzberg's classification for managerial roles where managers initiate activities, handle disturbances, allocate resources, and negotiate conflicts.
decision-support systems (DSS)
Information systems at the organization's management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semistructured and unstructured decision making.
dedicated lines
Telephone lines that are continuously available for transmission by a lessee. Typically conditioned to transmit data at high speeds for high-volume applications.
deep packet inspection (DPI)
Technology for managing network traffic by examining data packets, sorting out low-priority data from higher priority business-critical data, and sending packets in
order of priority
demand planning
Determining how much product a business needs to make to satisfy all its customers' demands.
denial of service (DoS) attack
Flooding a network server or Web
server with false communications or requests for services in order to crash the network.
Descartes' rule of change
A principle that states that if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any
time.
design
Simon's second stage of decision making, when the individual conceives of possible alternative solutions to a problem.
digital asset management systems
Classify, store, and distribute digital objects such as photographs, graphic images, video, and audio content.
digital certificate
An attachment to an electronic message to verify the identity of the sender and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply.
digital checking
Systems that extend the functionality of existing checking accounts so they can be used for online shopping
payments.
digital credit card payment system
Secure services for credit card payments on the Internet that protect information transmitted among users, merchant sites, and processing banks.
digital dashboard
Displays all of a firm's key performance indicators as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions.
digital divide
Large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among different social groups and different locations.
digital firm
Organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means.
digital goods
Goods that can be delivered over a digital network.
digital market
A marketplace that is created by computer and communication technologies that link many buyers and sellers.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
Adjusts copyright laws to the Internet Age by making it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copy-righted materials.
digital signal
A discrete waveform that transmits data coded into two discrete states as 1-bits and 0-bits, which are represented as on-off electrical pulses; used for data communications.
digital subscriber line (DSL)
A group of technologies providing
high-capacity transmission over existing copper telephone lines.
digital wallet
Software that stores credit card, electronic cash, owner identification, and address information and provides this data automatically during electronic commerce purchase transactions.
direct cutover
A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
disaster recovery planning
Planning for the restoration of
computing and communications services after they have been
disrupted.
disintermediation
The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a value chain.
disruptive technologies
Technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services
and business models obsolete.
distance learning
Education or training delivered over a distance to individuals in one or more locations.
distributed database
A database that is stored in more than one physical location. Parts or copies of the database are physically stored in one location, and other parts or copies are stored and maintained in other locations.
distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack
Numerous computers inundating and overwhelming a network from numerous launch points.
distributed processing
The distribution of computer processing work among multiple computers linked by a communications network.
documentation
Descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint.
domain name
English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric Internet Protocol (IP) address for each computer connected to the Internet.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A hierarchical system of servers maintaining a database enabling the conversion of domain names to their numeric IP addresses.
domestic exporter
Form of business organization characterized by the heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin.
downsizing
The process of transferring applications from large computers to smaller ones.
downtime
Period of time in which an information system is not operational.
drill down
The ability to move from summary data to lower and lower levels of detail.
due process
A process in which laws are well-known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that laws are applied correctly.
dynamic pricing
Pricing of items based on real-time interactions between buyers and sellers that determine what a item is worth at any particular moment.
e-government
Use of the Internet and related technologies to digitally enable government and public sector agencies' relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
e-learning
Instruction delivered through purely digital technology, such as CD-ROMs, the Internet, or private networks.
efficient customer response system
System that directly links consumer behavior back to distribution, production, and supply chains.
electronic billing and payment presentation system
Systems used for paying routine monthly bills that allow users to view their bills electronically and pay them through electronic funds transfers from banks or credit card accounts.
electronic business (e-business)
The use of the Internet and digital technology to execute all the business processes in the enterprise. Includes e-commerce as well as processes for the internal management of the firm and for coordination with suppliers and other business partners.
electronic commerce
The process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transactions using the Internet, networks, and other digital technologies.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
The direct computer-to- computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transactions, such as orders, shipment instructions, or payments.
electronic payment system
The use of digital technologies, such as credit cards, smart cards and Internet-based payment systems, to pay for products and services electronically.
e-mail
The computer-to-computer exchange of messages.
employee relationship management (ERM)
Software dealing with employee issues that are closely related to CRM, such as setting objectives, employee performance management, performance- based compensation, and employee training.
encryption
The coding and scrambling of messages to prevent their being read or accessed without authorization.
end-user development
The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
end-user interface
The part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system, such as on-line screens and commands.
end users
Representatives of departments outside the information systems group for whom applications are developed.
enterprise applications
Systems that can coordinate activities, decisions, and knowledge across many different functions, levels, and business units in a firm. Include enterprise systems, supply chain management systems, and knowledge management systems.
enterprise content management systems
Help organizations manage structured and semistructured knowledge, providing corporate repositories of documents, reports, presentations, and best practices and capabilities for collecting and organizing e-mail and graphic objects.
enterprise portal
Web interface providing a single entry point for accessing organizational information and services, including information from various enterprise applications and in-house legacy systems so that information appears to be coming from a single source.
enterprise software
Set of integrated modules for applications such as sales and distribution, financial accounting, investment management, materials management, production planning, plant maintenance, and human resources that allow data to be used by multiple functions and business processes.
enterprise systems
Integrated enterprise-wide information systems that coordinate key internal processes of the firm.
enterprise-wide knowledge management systems
General- purpose, firmwide systems that collect, store, distribute, and apply digital content and knowledge.
entity
A person, place, thing, or event about which information must be kept.
entity-relationship diagram
A methodology for documenting databases illustrating the relationship between various entities in the database.
ergonomics
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
e-tailer
Online retail stores from the giant Amazon to tiny local stores that have Web sites where retail goods are sold.
ethical "no free lunch" rule
Assumption that all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone else, unless there is a specific declaration otherwise, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.
ethics
Principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents to make choices to guide their behavior.
evil twins
Wireless networks that pretend to be legitimate to entice participants to log on and reveal passwords or credit card numbers.
exchange
Third-party Net marketplace that is primarily transaction oriented and that connects many buyers and suppliers for spot purchasing.
executive support systems (ESS)
Information systems at the organization's strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications.
expert system
Knowledge-intensive computer program that captures the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge.
explicit knowledge
Knowledge that has been documented.
external integration tools
Project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all
organizational levels.
extranet
Private intranet that is accessible to authorized outsiders.
Fair Information Practices (FIP)
A set of principles originally set forth in 1973 that governs the collection and use of information about individuals and forms the basis of most U.S. and European privacy laws.
fault-tolerant computer systems
Systems that contain extra hardware, software, and power supply components that can back a system up and keep it running to prevent system failure.
feasibility study
As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
feedback
Output that is returned to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input.
fiber-optic cable
A fast, light, and durable transmission medium consisting of thin strands of clear glass fiber bound into cables. Data are transmitted as light pulses.
field
A grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number, such as a person's name or age.
file transfer protocol (FTP)
Tool for retrieving and transferring files from a remote computer.
file
A group of records of the same type.
firewall
Hardware and software placed between an organization's internal network and an external network to prevent outsiders from invading private networks.
focused differentiation
Competitive strategy for developing new market niches for specialized products or services where a business can compete in the target area better than its competitors.
folksonomies
User-created taxonomies for classifying and sharing information.
foreign key
Field in a database table that enables users find related information in another database table.
formal control tools
Project management technique that helps monitor the progress toward completion of a task and fulfillment of goals.
formal planning tools
Project management technique that structures and sequences tasks, budgeting time, money, and technical resources required to complete the tasks.
forward chaining
A strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion.
fourth-generation language
A programming language that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages.
franchiser
Form of business organization in which a product is created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons relies heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources.
free/fremium revenue model
an e-commerce revenue model in which a firm offers basic services or content for free, while charging a premium for advanced or high value features.
fuzzy logic
Rule-based AI that tolerates imprecision by using nonspecific terms called membership functions to solve problems.
Gantt chart
Visually represents the timing, duration, and resource requirements of project tasks.
general controls
Overall control environment governing the design, security, and use of computer programs and the security of data files in general throughout the organization's information technology infrastructure.
genetic algorithms
Problem-solving methods that promote the evolution of solutions to specified problems using the model of living organisms adapting to their environment.
geographic information system (GIS)
System with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision-making.
global culture
The development of common expectations, shared artifacts, and social norms among different cultures and peoples.
global positioning system (GPS)
Worldwide satellite navigational system.
graphical user interface (GUI)
The part of an operating system users interact with that uses graphic icons and the computer mouse to issue commands and make selections.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Requires financial institutions to ensure the security and confidentiality. of customer data
green computing
Refers to practices and technologies for designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated devices such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems to minimize impact on the environment.
grid computing
Applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem.
group decision-support system (GDSS)
An interactive computer- based system to facilitate the solution to unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group.
hacker
A person who gains unauthorized access to a computer network for profit, criminal mischief, or personal pleasure.
hertz
Measure of frequency of electrical impulses per second, with 1 Hertz equivalent to 1 cycle per second.
high-availability computing
Tools and technologies ,including backup hardware resources, to enable a system to recover quickly from a crash.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA)
Law outlining rules for medical security, privacy, and the management of health care records.
hotspot
A specific geographic location in which an access point provides public Wi-Fi network service.
hubs
Very simple devices that connect network components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices.
hybrid AI systems
Integration of multiple AI technologies into a single application to take advantage of the best features of these technologies.
hypertext markup language (HTML)
Page description language for creating Web pages and other hypermedia documents.
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
The communications standard used to transfer pages on the Web. Defines how messages are formatted and transmitted.
identity management
Business processes and software tools for identifying the valid users of a system and controlling their access to system resources.
identity theft
Theft of key pieces of personal information, such as credit card or Social Security numbers, in order to obtain merchandise and services in the name of the victim or to obtain false credentials.
Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
A principle that states that if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone.
implementation
Simon's final stage of decision-making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
industry structure
The nature of participants in an industry and their relative bargaining power. Derives from the competitive forces and establishes the general business environment in an industry and the overall profitability of doing business in that environment.
inference engine
The strategy used to search through the rule base in an expert system; can be forward or backward chaining.
information
Data that have been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings.
information asymmetry
Situation where the relative bargaining power of two parties in a transaction is determined by one party in the transaction possessing more information essential to the transaction than the other party.
information density
The total amount and quality of information available to all market participants, consumers, and merchants.
information policy
Formal rules governing the maintenance, distribution, and use of information in an organization.
information requirements
A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
information rights
The rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves.
information system
Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization.
information systems department
The formal organizational unit that is responsible for the information systems function in the organization.
information systems literacy
Broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about computers.
information systems managers
Leaders of the various specialists in the information systems department.
information systems plan
A road map indicating the direction of systems development: the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
information technology (IT)
All the hardware and software technologies a firm needs to achieve its business objectives.
information technology (IT) infrastructure
Computer hardware, software, data, storage technology, and networks providing a portfolio of shared IT resources for the organization.
informational roles
Mintzberg's classification for managerial roles where managers act as the nerve centers of their organizations, receiving and disseminating critical information.
informed consent
Consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to make a rational decision.
input
The capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or from its external environment for processing in an information system.
instant messaging
Chat service that allows participants to create their own private chat channels so that a person can be alerted whenever someone on his or her private list is on-line to initiate a chat session with that particular individual.
intangible benefits
Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
intellectual property
Intangible property created by individuals or corporations that is subject to protections under trade secret, copyright, and patent law.
intelligence
The first of Simon's four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization.
intelligent agent
Software program that uses a built-in or learned knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks for an individual user, business process, or software application.
internal integration tools
Project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit.
international information systems architecture
The basic information systems required by organizations to coordinate worldwide trade and other activities.
Internet
Global network of networks using universal standards to connect millions of different networks.
Internet Protocol (IP) address
Four-part numeric address indicating a unique computer location on the Internet
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers.
Internet telephony
Technologies that use the Internet Protocol's packet-switched connections for voice service.
Internet2
Research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that provides an infrastructure for supporting high- bandwidth Internet applications.
interorganizational systems
Information systems that automate the flow of information across organizational boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, or suppliers.
interpersonal roles
Mintzberg's classification for managerial roles where managers act as figureheads and leaders for the organization.
intranet
An internal network based on Internet and World Wide Web technology and standards.
intrusion detection system
Tools to monitor the most vulnerable points in a network to detect and deter unauthorized intruders.
investment workstation
Powerful desktop computer for financial specialists, which is optimized to access and manipulate massive amounts of financial data.
IT governance
Strategy and policies for using information technology within an organization, specifying the decision rights and accountabilities to ensure that information technology supports the organization's strategies and objectives.
iterative
A process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system.
Java
Programming language that can deliver only the software functionality needed for a particular task, such as a small applet downloaded from a network; can run on any computer and operating system.
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
just-in-time
Scheduling system for minimizing inventory by having components arrive exactly at the moment they are needed and finished goods shipped as soon as they leave the assembly line.
key field
A field in a record that uniquely identifies instances of that record so that it can be retrieved, updated, or sorted.
key performance indicators
Measures proposed by senior management for understanding how well the firm is performing along specified dimensions.
keylogger
Spyware that records every keystroke made on a computer to steal personal information or passwords or to launch Internet attacks.
knowledge
Concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating, and using information.
knowledge—and information-intense products
Products that require a great deal of learning and knowledge to produce.
knowledge base
Model of human knowledge that is used by expert systems.
knowledge discovery
Identification of novel and valuable patterns in large databases.
knowledge management
The set of processes developed in an
organization to create, gather, store, maintain, and disseminate the firm's knowledge.
knowledge management systems
Systems that support the creation,
capture, storage, and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge.
knowledge network system
Online directory for locating corporate
experts in well-defined knowledge domains.
knowledge workers
People such as engineers or architects who design products or services and create knowledge for the organization.
learning management system (LMS)
Tools for the management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of various types of employee learning.
legacy system
A system that has been in existence for a long time and that continues to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning it.
legitimacy
The extent to which one's authority is accepted on grounds of competence, vision, or other qualities. Making judgments and taking actions on the basis of narrow or personal characteristics.
liability
The existence of laws that permit individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.
Linux
Reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an offshoot of UNIX and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at very low cost. Used as alternative to UNIX and Windows NT.
local area network (LAN)
A telecommunications network that requires its own dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance, usually one building or several buildings in close proximity.
long tail marketing
Refers to the ability of firms to profitably market goods to very small online audiences, largely because of the lower costs of reaching very small market segments (people who fall into the long tail ends of a Bell curve).
mainframe
Largest category of computer, used for major business processing.
maintenance
Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
malware
Malicious software programs such as computer viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
managed security service provider (MSSP)
Company that provides security management services for subscribing clients.
management information systems (MIS)
The study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management..
management-level systems
Information systems that support the monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities of middle managers.
managerial roles
Expectations of the activities that managers should perform in an organization.
man-month
The traditional unit of measurement used by systems designers to estimate the length of time to complete a project. Refers to the amount of work a person can be expected to complete in a month.
market creator
An e-commerce business model in which firms provide a digital online environment where buyers and sellers can meet, search for products, and engage in transactions.
marketspace
A marketplace extended beyond traditional boundaries and removed from a temporal and geographic location.
mashups
Composite software applications that depend on high-speed networks, universal communication standards, and open-source code.
mass customization
The capacity to offer individually tailored products or services using mass production resources.
megahertz
A measure of cycle speed, or the pacing of events in a computer; one megahertz equals one million cycles per second.
menu costs
Merchants' costs of changing prices.
metric
A standard measurement of performance.
metropolitan area network (MAN)
Network that spans a metropolitan area, usually a city and its major suburbs. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and a LAN.
microbrowser
Web browser software with a small file size that can work with low-memory constraints, tiny screens of handheld
wireless devices, and low bandwidth of wireless networks.
micropayment
Payment for a very small sum of money, often less than $10.
microprocessor
Very large scale integrated circuit technology that integrates the computer's memory, logic, and control on a single chip.
microwave
A high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point transmission in which high-frequency radio signals are transmitted through the atmosphere from one terrestrial transmission station to another.
middle management
People in the middle of the organizational hierarchy who are responsible for carrying out the plans and goals of senior management.
midrange computer
Middle-size computer that is capable of supporting the computing needs of smaller organizations or of managing networks of other computers.
minicomputer
Middle-range computer used in systems for universities, factories, or research laboratories.
MIS audit
Identifies all the controls that govern individual information systems and assesses their effectiveness.
mobile commerce (m-commerce)
The use of wireless devices, such as cell phones or handheld digital information appliances, to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to-business e- commerce transactions over the Internet.
mobile wallets (m-wallets)
Store m-commerce shoppers' personal information and credit card numbers to expedite the purchase process.
moblog
Specialized blog featuring photos with captions posted from mobile phones.
model
An abstract representation that illustrates the components or relationships of a phenomenon.
model-driven DSS
Primarily stand-alone system that uses some type of model to perform "what-if" and other kinds of analyses.
modem
A device for translating a computer's digital signals into analog form for transmission over ordinary telephone lines, or for translating analog signals back into digital form for reception by a computer.
module
A logical unit of a program that performs one or several functions.
Moore's Law
Assertion that the number of components on a chip doubles each year.
MP3 (MPEG3)
Compression standard that can compress audio files for transfer over the Internet with virtually no loss in quality.
multicore processor
Integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.
multimedia
The integration of two or more types of media such as text, graphics, sound, voice, full-motion video, or animation into a computer-based application.
multinational
Form of business organization that concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing.
multiplexing
Ability of a single communications channel to carry data transmissions from multiple sources simultaneously.
multitiered (N-tier) client/server architecture
Client/server network which the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers.
nanotechnology
Technology that builds structures and processes based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.
natural language
Nonprocedural language that enables users to communicate with the computer using conversational commands resembling human speech.
net marketplace
A single digital marketplace based on Internet technology linking many buyers to many sellers.
netbook
Small low-cost, lightweight subnotebook optimized for wireless communication and Internet access.
network
The linking of two or more computers to share data or resources, such as a printer.
network economics
Model of strategic systems at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains.
network interface card (NIC)
Expansion card inserted into a computer to enable it to connect to a network.
network operating system (NOS)
Special software that routes and manages communications on the network and coordinates network resources.
networking and telecommunications technology
Physical devices and software that link various computer hardware components and transfer data from one physical location to another.
neural network
Hardware or software that attempts to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain.
nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA)
Technology that can find obscure hidden connections between people or other entities by analyzing information from many different sources to correlate relationships.
normalization
he process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data when designing a relational database.
XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
General-purpose language that describes the structure of a document and supports links to multiple documents, allowing data to be manipulated by the computer. Used for both Web and non-Web applications.
worms
Independent software programs that propagate themselves to disrupt the operation of computer networks or destroy data and other programs.
World Wide Web
A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a networked environment.
workflow management
The process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently from one location to another.
WML (Wireless Markup Language)
Markup language for Wireless Web sites; based on XML and optimized for tiny displays.
wisdom of crowds
The belief that large numbers of people can make better decisions about a wide range of topics or products than a single person or even a small committee of experts (first proposed in a book by James Surowiecki).
wisdom
The collective and individual experience of applying knowledge to the solution of problems.
wireless sensor networks (WSNs)
Networks of interconnected wireless devices with built-in processing, storage, and radio frequency sensors and antennas that are embedded into the physical environment to provide measurements of many points over large spaces.
wireless portals
Portals with content and services optimized for mobile devices to steer users to the information they are most likely to need.
Wintel PC
Any computer that uses Intel microprocessors (or compatible processors) and a Windows operating system.
Windows 7
The successor to Microsoft Windows Vista operating system released in 2009.
Windows
Microsoft family of operating systems for both network servers and client computers. The most recent version is Windows Vista.
WiMax
Popular term for IEEE Standard 802.16 for wireless networking over a range of up to 31 miles with a data transfer rate of up to 75 Mbps. Stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access.
wiki
Collaborative Web site where visitors can add, delete, or modify content, including the work of previous authors.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Telecommunications network that spans a large geographical distance. May consist of a variety of cable, satellite, and microwave technologies.
Wi-Fi
Standards for Wireless Fidelity and refers to the 802.11 family of wireless networking standards.
Web site
All of the World Wide Web pages maintained by an organization or an individual.
Web services
Set of universal standards using Internet technology for integrating different applications from different sources without time-consuming custom coding. Used for linking systems of different organizations or for linking disparate systems within the same organization.
Web server
Software that manages requests for Web pages on the computer where they are stored and that delivers the page to the user's computer.
Web mining
Discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from the World Wide Web.
Web hosting service
Company with large Web server computers to maintain the Web sites of fee-paying subscribers.
Web bugs
Tiny graphic files embedded in e-mail messages and Web pages that are designed to monitor online Internet user behavior.
Web browser
An easy-to-use software tool for accessing the World Wide Web and the Internet.
Web beacons
Tiny objects invisibly embedded in e-mail messages and Web pages that are designed to monitor the behavior of the user visiting a Web site or sending e-mail.
text mining
Discovery of patterns and relationships from large sets of unstructured data.
token
Physical device similar to an identification card that is designed to prove the identity of a single user.
touch point
Method of firm interaction with a customer, such as telephone, e-mail, customer service desk, conventional mail, or point-of-purchase.
topology
The way in which the components of a network are connected.
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Designates the total cost of owning technology resources, including initial purchase costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
A concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization.
trade secret
Any intellectual work or product used for a business purpose that can be classified as belonging to that business, provided it is not based on information in the public domain.
transaction costs
Costs incurred when a firm buys on the marketplace what it cannot make itself.
transaction cost theory
Economic theory stating that firms grow larger because they can conduct marketplace transactions internally more cheaply than they can with external firms in the marketplace.
transaction fee revenue model
An online e-commerce revenue model where the firm receives a fee for enabling or executing transactions.
transaction processing systems (TPS)
Computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business; they serve the organization's operational level.
transborder data flow
The movement of information across international boundaries in any form.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Dominant model for achieving connectivity among different networks. Provides a universally agree-on method for breaking up digital messages into packets, routing them to the proper addresses, and then reassembling them into coherent messages.
transnational
Truly global form of business organization with no national headquarters; value-added activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand and local competitive advantage.
Trojan horse
A software program that appears legitimate but contains a second hidden function that may cause damage.
tuple
A row or record in a relational database.
twisted wire
A transmission medium consisting of pairs of twisted
copper wires; used to transmit analog phone conversations but can be used for data transmission.
Unified communications
Integrates disparate channels for voice communications, data communications, instant messaging, e- mail, and electronic conferencing into a single experience where users can seamlessly switch back and forth between different communication modes.
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
Industry standard methodology for analysis and design of an object-oriented software system.
unified threat management (UTM)
Comprehensive security management tool that combines multiple security tools, including firewalls, virtual private networks, intrusion detection systems, and Web content filtering and anti-spam software.
uniform resource locator (URL)
The address of a specific resource on the Internet.
unit testing
The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called program testing.
UNIX
Operating system for all types of computers, which is machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking. Used in high-end workstations and servers.
unstructured decisions
Nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition; there is no agreed-upon procedure for making such decisions.
Usenet
Forums in which people share information and ideas on a defined topic through large electronic bulletin boards where anyone can post messages on the topic for others to see and to which others can respond.
user interface
The part of the information system through which the end user interacts with the system; type of hardware and the series of on-screen commands and responses required for a user to work with the system.
user-designer communications gap
The difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
Utilitarian Principle
Principle that assumes one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
utility computing
Model of computing in which companies pay only for the information technology resources they actually use during a specified time period. Also called on-demand computing or usage-based pricing.
value chain model
Model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems can best be applied to achieve a competitive advantage.
value web
Customer-driven network of independent firms who use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market.
Value-Added Network (VAN)
Private, multipath, data-only, third- party-managed network that multiple organizations use on a subscription basis.
videoconferencing
Teleconferencing in which participants see each other over video screens.
virtual company
Organization using networks to link people, assets and ideas to create and distribute products and services without being limited to traditional organizational boundaries or physical location.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A secure connection between two points across the Internet to transmit corporate data. Provides a low-cost alternative to a private network.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
A set of specifications for interactive three-dimensional modeling on the World Wide Web.
virtual reality systems
nteractive graphics software and hardware that create computer-generated simulations that provide sensations that emulate real-world activities.
virtual world
Computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via graphical representations called avatars.
virtualization
Presenting a set of computing resources so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
Facilities for managing the delivery of voice information using the Internet Protocol (IP).
war driving
Technique in which eavesdroppers drive by buildings or park outside and try to intercept wireless network traffic.
Web 2.0
Second-generation, interactive Internet-based services that enable people to collaborate, share information, and create new services online, including mashups, blogs, RSS, and wikis.
Web 3.0
Future vision of the Web where all digital information is woven together with intelligent search capabilities.
software package
A prewritten, precoded, commercially available set of programs that eliminates the need to write software programs for certain functions.
spam
Unsolicited commercial e-mail.
spamming
Form of abuse in which thousands and even hundreds of thousands of unsolicited e-mail and electronic messages are sent out, creating a nuisance for both businesses and individual users.
spyware
Technology that aids in gathering information about a
person or organization without their knowledge.
SQL injection attack
Attacks against a Web site that take advantage of vulnerabilities in poorly coded SQL (a standard and common
database software application) applications in order to introduce
malicious program code into a company's systems and networks.
star topology
A network topology in which all computers and other
devices are connected to a central host computer. All communications between network devices must pass through the host computer.
storage area network (SAN)
A high-speed network dedicated to storage that connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays so they can be shared by multiple servers.
storage technology
Physical media and software governing the storage and organization of data for use in an information system.
stored value payment systems
Systems enabling consumers to make instant on-line payments to merchants and other individuals based on value stored in a digital account.
strategic information systems
Computer systems at any level of the organization that change goals, operations, products, services, or environmental relationships to help the organization gain a competitive advantage.
strategic transitions
A movement from one level of sociotechnical system to another. Often required when adopting strategic systems that demand changes in the social and technical elements of an organization.
streaming
A publishing method for music and video files that flows a continuous stream of content to a user's device without being stored locally on the device.
structure chart
System documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
structured
Refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
structured decisions
Decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them.
structured knowledge
Knowledge in the form of structured documents and reports.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
The standard data manipulation language for relational database management systems.
supply chain
Network of organizations and business processes for procuring materials, transforming raw materials into intermediate and finished products, and distributing the finished products to customers.
supply chain execution systems
Systems to manage the flow of products through distribution centers and warehouses to ensure that products are delivered to the right locations in the most efficient manner.
supply chain management
Integrationofsupplier,distributor,and customer logistics requirements into one cohesive process.
supply chain management systems
Information systems that automate the flow of information between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services.
supply chain planning systems
Systems that enable a firm to generate demand forecasts for a product and to develop sourcing and manufacturing plans for that product.
support activities
Activities that make the delivery of a firm's primary activities possible. Consist of the organization's infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement.
switch
Device to connect network components that has more intelligence than a hub and can filter and forward data to a specified destination.
switching costs
The expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and expenditure of resources when changing from one supplier or system to a competing supplier or system.
syndicator
Business aggregating content or applications from multiple sources, packaging them for distribution, and reselling them to third-party Web sites.
system testing
Tests the functioning of the information system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.
systems analysis
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system.
systems analysts
Specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as liaison between the information systems department and the rest of the organization.
systems design
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
systems development
The activities that go into producing an information systems solution to an organizational problem or opportunity.
systems life cycle
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists.
T lines
High-speed data lines leased from communications providers, such as T-1 lines (with a transmission capacity of 1.544 Mbps).
tacit knowledge
Expertise and experience of organizational members that has not been formally documented.
tangible benefits
Benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
taxonomy
Method of classifying things according to a predetermined system.
teams
Teams are formal groups whose members collaborate to achieve specific goals.
teamware
Group collaboration software that is customized for teamwork.
technology standards
Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a network.
technostress
Stress induced by computer use; symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and enervation.
telecommunications system
A collection of compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate information from one location to another.
teleconferencing
The ability to confer with a group of people simultaneously using the telephone or electronic-mail group communication software
telepresence
Telepresence is a technology that allows a person to give the appearance of being present at a location other than his or her true physical location.
Telnet
Network tool that allows someone to log on to one computer system while doing work on another.
test plan
Prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
testing
The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI)
Occupational disease that occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions with high-impact loads or thousands of repetitions with low-impact loads.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
resource allocation
The determination of how costs, time, and personnel are assigned to different phases of a systems development project.
responsibility
Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions one makes.
revenue model
A description of how a firm will earn revenue, generate profits, and produce a return on investment.
richness
Measurement of the depth and detail of information that a business can supply to the customer as well as information the business collects about the customer.
ring topology
A network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another.
risk assessment
Determining the potential frequency of the occurrence of a problem and the potential damage if the problem were to occur. Used to determine the cost/benefit of a control.
Risk Aversion Principle
Principle that one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
router
Specialized communications processor that forwards packets of data from one network to another network.
routines
Precise rules, procedures and practices that have been developed to cope with expected situations.
RSS
Technology using aggregator software to pull content from Web sites and feed it automatically to subscribers' computers.
SaaS (Software as a Service)
Services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a Web-based service.
safe harbor
Private self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulations but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Law passed in 2002 that imposes responsibility on companies and their management to protect investors by safeguarding the accuracy and integrity of financial information that is used internally and released externally.
scalability
The ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down.
scope
Defines what work is and is not included in a project.
scoring model
A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
search costs
The time and money spent locating a suitable product and determining the best price for that product.
search engine
A tool for locating specific sites or information on the Internet.
search engine marketing
Use of search engines to deliver in their results sponsored links, for which advertisers have paid.
search engine optimization (SEO)
the process of changing a Web site's content, layout, and format in order to increase the ranking of the site on popular search engines, and to generate more site visitors.
Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP)
Protocol used for encrypting data flowing over the Internet; limited to individual messages.
SecureSocketsLayer (SSL)
Enables client and server computers to manage encryption and decryption activities as they communicate with each other during a secure Web session.
security
Policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access, alteration, theft, or physical damage to information systems.
security policy
Statements ranking information risks, identifying acceptable security goals, and identifying the mechanisms for achieving these goals.
Semantic Web
Ways of making the Web more "intelligent," with machine-facilitated understanding of information so that searches can be more intuitive, effective, and executed using intelligent software agents.
semistructured decisions
Decisions in which only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure.
senior management
People occupying the topmost hierarchy in an organization who are responsible for making long-range decisions.
sensitivity analysis
Models that ask "what-if" questions repeatedly to determine the impact of changes in one or more factors on the outcomes.
server
Computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network.
server farm
Large group of servers maintained by a commercial vendor and made available to subscribers for electronic commerce and other activities requiring heavy use of servers.
service level agreement (SLA)
Formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer.
service platform
Integration of multiple applications from multiple business functions, business units, or business partners to deliver a seamless experience for the customer, employee, manager, or business partner.
service-oriented architecture
Software architecture of a firm built on a collection of software programs that communicate with each other to perform assigned tasks to create a working software application
shopping bot
Software with varying levels of built-in intelligence to help electronic commerce shoppers locate and evaluate products or service they might wish to purchase.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
Set of rules that allows Web services applications to pass data and instructions to one another.
six sigma
A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities; used to designate a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs.
smart card
A credit-card-size plastic card that stores digital information and that can be used for electronic payments in place of cash.
smartphone
Wireless phone with voice, text, and Internet capabilities.
sniffer
Type of eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over a network.
social bookmarking
Capability for users to save their bookmarks to Web pages on a public Web site and tag these bookmarks with keywords to organize documents and share information with others.
social engineering
Tricking people into revealing their passwords by pretending to be legitimate users or members of a company in need of information.
social networking sites
Online community for expanding users' business or social contacts by making connections through their mutual business or personal connections.
social shopping
Use of Websites featuring user-created Web pages to share knowledge about items of interest to other shoppers.
sociotechnical design
Design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs.
sociotechnical view
Seeing systems as composed of both technical and social elements.
software localization
Process of converting software to operate in a second language.
pharming
Phishing technique that redirects users to a bogus Web page, even when an individual enters the correct Web page address.
phased approach
Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
phishing
Form of spoofing involving setting up fake Web sites or sending e-mail messages that resemble those of legitimate businesses that ask users for confidential personal data.
pilot study
A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional;only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place.
pivot table
Spreadsheet tool for reorganizing and summarizing two or more dimensions of data in a tabular format.
podcasting
Publishing audio broadcasts via the Internet so that subscribing users can download audio files onto their personal computers or portable music players.
pop-up ad
Ad that opens automatically and does not disappear until the user clicks on it.
portal
Web interface for presenting integrated personalized content from a variety of sources. Also refers to a Web site service that provides an initial point of entry to the Web.
portfolio analysis
An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
post-implementation audit
Formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how well the system has met its original objectives.
prediction markets
Approach to forecasting and trend identification that pools opinions from a group of knowledgeable people about a product or service.
predictive analytics
The use of data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the probability a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product.
price discrimination
Selling the same goods, or nearly the same goods, to different targeted groups at different prices.
price transparency
The ease with which consumers can find out the variety of prices in a market.
primary activities
Activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firm's products or services.
primary key
Unique identifier for all the information in any row of a database table.
privacy
The claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state.
private cloud
A proprietary network or a data center that ties together servers, storage, networks, data, and applications as a set of virtualized services that are shared by users inside a company.
private exchange
Another term for a private industrial network.
private industrial networks
Web-enabled networks linking systems of multiple firms in an industry for the coordination of trans-organizational business processes.
process specifications
Describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
processing
The conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans.
procurement
Sourcing goods and materials, negotiating with suppliers, paying for goods, and making delivery arrangements.
product differentiation
Competitive strategy for creating brand loyalty by developing new and unique products and services that
are not easily duplicated by competitors.
production
The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
production or service workers
People who actually produce the products or services of the organization.
profiling
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals.
program-data dependence
The close relationship between data stored in files and the software programs that update and maintain those files. Any change in data organization or format requires a change in all the programs associated with those files.
programmers
Highly trained technical specialists who write computer software instructions.
programming
The process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code.
project
Planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective.
project management
Application of knowledge, tools, and techniques to achieve specific targets within a specified budget and time period.
protocol
A set of rules and procedures that govern transmission between the components in a network.
prototype
The preliminary working version of an information system for demonstration and evaluation purposes.
prototyping
The process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
public cloud
A cloud maintained by an external service provider, accessed through the Internet, and available to the general public.
public key encryption
Uses two keys: one shared (or public) and one private.
public key infrastructure(PKI)
System for creating public and private keys using a certificate authority (CA) and digital certificates for authentication.
pull-based model
Supply chain driven by actual customer orders or purchases so that members of the supply chain produce and deliver only what customers have ordered.
pure-play
Business models based purely on the Internet.
push-based model
Supply chain driven by production master schedules based on forecasts or best guesses of demand for products, and products are "pushed" to customers.
query language
Software tool that provides immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined.
radio-frequency identification (RFID)
Technology using tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and its location to transmit short-distance radio signals to special RFID readers that then pass the data on to a computer for processing.
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth- generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
rational model
Model of human behavior based on the belief that people, organizations, and nations engage in basically consistent, value-maximizing calculations.
rationalization of procedures
The streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient.
real options pricing models
Models for evaluating information technology investments with uncertain returns by using techniques for valuing financial options.
record
A group of related fields.
recovery-oriented computing
Computer systems designed to
recover rapidly when mishaps occur.
referential integrity
Rules to ensure that relationships between coupled database tables remain consistent.
relational DBMS
A type of logical database model that treats data as if they were stored in two-dimensional tables. It can relate data stored in one table to data in another as long as the two tables share a common data element.
object
Software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data.
object-oriented DBMS
An approach to data management that stores both data and the procedures acting on the data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared; the objects can contain multimedia.
object-oriented development
Approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. The system is modelled as a collection of objects and the relationship between them.
object-oriented programming
An approach to software development that combines data and procedures into a single object.
object-relational DBMS
A database management system that combines the capabilities of a relational DBMS for storing traditional information and the capabilities of an object-oriented DBMS for storing graphics and multimedia.
Office 2010
The latest version of Microsoft desktop software suite with capabilities for supporting collaborative work on the Web or incorporating information from the Web into documents.
offshore outsourcing
Outsourcing systems development work or maintenance of existing systems to external vendors in another country.
on-demand computing
Firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers, investing just enough to handle average processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as the market demands. Also called utility computing.
on-line analytical processing (OLAP)
Capability for manipulating and analyzing large volumes of data from multiple perspectives.
online processing
A method of collecting and processing data in which transactions are entered directly into the computer system and processed immediately.
online transaction processing
Transaction processing mode in which transactions entered on-line are immediately processed by the computer.
open-source software
Software that provides free access to its program code, allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors.
operating system
Software that manages the resources and activities of the computer.
operational CRM
Customer-facing applications, such as sales force automation, call center and customer service support, and marketing automation.
operational management
People who monitor the day-to-day activities of the organization.
operational-level systems
Information systems that monitor the elementary activities and transactions of the organization.
opt-in
Model of informed consent permitting prohibiting an organization from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
opt-out
Model of informed consent permitting the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
organization (behavioral definition)
A collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that are delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution.
organization (technical definition)
A stable, formal, social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs.
organizational and management capital
Investments in organization and management such as new business processes, management behavior, organizational culture, or training.
organizational impact analysis
Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
organizational learning
Creation of new standard operating procedures and business processes that reflect organizations' experience.
output
The distribution of processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
outsourcing
The practice of contracting computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors.
P3P
Industry standard designed to give users more control over personal information gathered on Web sites they visit. Stands for Platform for Privacy Preferences Project.
packet switching
Technology that breaks messages into small, fixed bundles of data and routes them in the most economical way through any available communications channel.
paradigm shift
Radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.
parallel strategy
A safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
particularism
Making judgments and taking action on the basis of narrow or personal characteristics, in all its forms (religious, nationalistic, ethnic, regionalism, geopolitical position).
partner relationship management (PRM)
Automation of the firm's relationships with its selling partners using customer data and analytical tools to improve coordination and customer sales.
patch
Small pieces of software to repair the software flaws without disturbing the proper operation of the software.
patent
A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 17 years; designed to ensure that inventors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labor while making widespread use of their inventions.
peer-to-peer
Network architecture that gives equal power to all computers on the network; used primarily in small networks.
personal area network (PAN)
Computer network used for communication among digital devices (including telephones and PDAs) that are close to one person.
personal digital assistant (PDA)
Small, pen-based, handheld computer with built-in wireless telecommunications capable of entirely digital communications transmission.
personalization
Ability of merchants to target marketing messages to specific individuals by adjusting the message for a person's name, interests, and past purchases.
PERT chart
Network diagram depicting project tasks and their interrelationships.
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