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Genetics List 1-Chapter 9

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allele
alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism
dominant
observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
recessive
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
dihybrid cross
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits
monohybrid cross
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on a single trait
heterozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two of the different alleles for the same trait
homozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two same alleles for the same trait
Punnett square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
F1 generation
the first offspring from a cross of two varieties in the parental (P) generation
F2 generation
offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation
P1 generation
parental generation, the first two individuals that make in a genetic cross
gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
heredity
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Mendel
Austrian monk whose work with peas contributed to our understanding of genetics
probability
the likelihood that a specific event will occur; expressed in mathematical terms
testcross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype