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alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism


observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait


the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms


An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present


a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.


genetic makeup of an organism


what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype

dihybrid cross

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits

monohybrid cross

A cross between two individuals, concentrating on a single trait


term used to refer to an organism that has two of the different alleles for the same trait


term used to refer to an organism that has two same alleles for the same trait

Punnett square

diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

F1 generation

the first offspring from a cross of two varieties in the parental (P) generation

F2 generation

offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation

P1 generation

parental generation, the first two individuals that make in a genetic cross


A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait


the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next


Austrian monk whose work with peas contributed to our understanding of genetics


the likelihood that a specific event will occur; expressed in mathematical terms


the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

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