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Terms in this set (16)
A mixture of minerals,organic matter,water and air which forms on the land surface.It covers most of the earth.Without soil,plants and animals would not survive on land.
*Dry and gritty
*Drains water easily
*Lacks important nutrients
*Doesn't hold or retain water well
*Good for crops like peanuts and peaches
*Smooth when dry
*Sticky when wet
*Rich in nutrients
*Good for growing peas and tomatoes
*Slippery when wet
*Not grainy or rocky
*Good for agriculture
*All vegetables and fruit grow well
*Loam is made up of clay,sand and silt so the particle size depends on the main component
*Drains water well
*Holds or retains water
*Soft and crumbly
*Good for potatoes and carrots
*Dark brown in color
*Soft and spongy
*Contains acid water
*Rich in organic matter
*Usually mixed with soil
*Good for mosses and sedge
*Light in color
*High lime content
*Very dry in summer
*Poor in nutrients
*Good for growing roses
How soil is formed?
Soil is formed from large rocks that have broken down over time by forces of nature.There are many types of soil,each with different colors and textures.These are called soil properties.
Soil form in layers.Each layer of soil is called a soil horizon.Soil is divided into 4 layers.
This is the top layer of soil that is made up of living and decomposed materials like leaves,plants, and bugs.This layer is very thin and is usually pretty dark.
This is the layer that we call "topsoil" and it is located just bellow the O Horizon.This layer is made up of minerals and decomposed organic matter and it is also very dark in color.This is the layer that many plant roots grow in.This layer has the most nutrients and contains HUMUS.Humus is the part of soil that is made up of decayed organic matter which are the remains of dead plants or animals.Humus contains nutrients that feed plants.Humus also soaks up and holds water more easily.Most plant roots grow in this soil horizon and the plant absorbs water and nutrients from this layer.
This is the layer we call "subsoil" and it is located just below the A Horizon.This layer has clay and mineral deposits and less organic materials than the layers above it.There is less humus in this horizon.
This is the layer that we call "regolith" and it is located just below the B Horizon.This layer is made up of slightly unbroken rock and only a little bit of organic material is found here.Plant roots are not found in this layer.
This is the layer that we call "bedrock" or "barerock".This layer is located just below the C Horizon.This layer is made up of unbroken rocks there is no organic material is found here.
Soil is a resource and can be used up,wasted or poisoned.It can be eroded by water and wind.When soil is eroded,the topsoil-the most fertile layer is washed away.This will then make it difficult for any plants to grow.Plants prevent soil erosion by holding the soil in place.
Soil can be polluted by chemicals being released onto the ground or by using pesticides or weed killer.Dumping garbage onto the ground is also a way of polluting the soil.
Fertilizers containing one or more nutrients can be added to the soil so nutrients can be replaced
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