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Digestive System Anatomy Vocabulary
Digestive System Anatomy Vocabulary
Terms in this set (93)
Chemical and/or physical decomposition (break down)
Alimentary Canal or Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
Tube structure opened on both ends and forms the digestive system.
Innermost layer of the GI tract made of three layers; mucous epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucoasae
The layer of the GI tract that contains numerous small glands, blood vessels and parasympathetic nerves that form a plexus
A thick layer of the GI tract composed of muscle tissue that wraps around the submucosa. This layer has an inner layer of circular muscle and outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle. Also, this layer contains the myenteric plexus
Collection of nerve fibers that play an important role in the regulation of digestive tract movement.
Outer layer of the GI Tract and is made up of a connective tissue layer and peritoneum.
Composed of the lips surrounding the mouth orifice, cheeks, tongue, hard and soft palates.
Specialized structures that surround the opening to the mouth. They are composed of by a mucous membrane covered with skin.
Shallow vertical groove on the upper lip near the midline
The line of contact between the lips when the mouth is closed
Forms the lateral boundaries of the oral cavity and are continuous with the lips. They are lined with a mucous membrane that is reflected onto the gingiva and soft palate.
Composed of four bones; two maxillae and two palatines.
Forms a partition between the mouth and the nasopharynx. It is made from muscle that forms an arch.
Small cone shaped process attached to the superior side of the oral cavity.
Composed of a solid mass of skeletal muscle covered by a mucous membrane. Has three parts; root, body and tip.
Another term for chewing
Another term for swallowing
A fold of mucous membrane in the midline of the undersurface of the tongue. Functions in anchoring the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
Congenital condition in which the frenulum is to short for free movement of the tongue. Causes the difficulty with speaking
Folds of the mucous membrane on the underside of the tongue that extend toward the apex of the tongue on both sides of the lingual frenulum
Accessory glands associated with the digestive system composed of three pairs of tubuloalveolar glands that secrete saliva.
Largest paired salivary glands located between the skin and underlying masseter muscle, anterior and inferior to the ear. This gland produces a watery (serous) type of saliva without mucus.
Paired salivary glands containing both serous and mucus producing elements. These glands are located inferior to the mandibular angle. The ducts of these glands open on either side of the lingual frenulum.
Smallest of the salivary glands found anterior to the submandibular glands. These glands are drained by eight to twenty ducts that open into the floor of the mouth. These glands produce only a mucous type of saliva
Exposed position of a tooth, covered by enamel
Found in the dentin of a tooth and consists of connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and sensory nerves.
Also called baby teeth. These are the first teeth become replaced by permanent teeth.
Teeth that replace deciduous teeth and are not replaced during the individuals lifetime
Collapsible, muscular, mucus-lined tube approximately 25cm (10in) long. This tube extends from the pharynx to the stomach. It runs through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity. Functions as a passageway for food by pushing the food downward toward the stomach
Tube like structure approximately 5 inches long that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus. It has three divisions. Commonly referred to as the throat.
Located behind the nose and extends from the posterior nares to the soft palate. Eustachian tubes open here.
Located behind the mouth from the soft palate to the hyoid bone. Posterior opening from the mouth called the fauces opens here.
Located from the level of the hyoid bone to the esophagus. Contains the larynx
Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES)
Circular muscle that helps prevent air from entering the esophagus during respiration. It is first 2-3 cm of the esophagus. Thickening of circular muscle layer which allows food to move from the mouth to the esophagus
Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) or Cardiac sphincter
controls the passage from the esophagus into the stomach; sphincter muscles normally limit passage to one direction
controls the passage from the stomach into the duodenum
Most superior part of the stomach generally superior to the cardiac sphincter
Portion of the stomach inferior to the fundus and superior to the pylorus
Most inferior part of the stomach
The area of the stomach consisting of the cardia and the pylorus
The curved surface of the lateral part of the stomach
The curved surface of the medial part of the stomach
An opening in the diaphragm located near the junction between the terminal esophagus and the stomach
A structural abnormality most often due to an abnormal relaxation or weakening of the gastroesophageal sphincter in which the superior part of the stomach protrudes slightly above the diaphragm
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or GERD
Term used to describe the backward flow of stomach acid up through the Cardiac Sphincter and into the lower esophagus.
Chief Cells or Zymogenic Cells
Specialized cells found in the stomach that secrete the enzymes of gastric juice
Specialized cells found in the stomach that secrete hydrochloric acid and produce a substance termed the intrinsic factor
Special substance produced by parietal cells of the stomach that bind to Vitamin B12 to protect it from digestive juices until the molecules reach the small intestine.
Cells found in the stomach that secrete ghrelin and gastrin
A hormone that stimulates the hypothalamus to increase appetite. Source is endocrine cells of the stomach.
A hormone that influences digestive function by stimulating the secretion of gastric juice rich in pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
The uppermost division of the small intestines and is the part to which the pyloric end of the stomach attaches.
A division of the small intestines occurring between the Duodenum and the ileum. Functions in absorption of nutrients.
Tiny projections on the folds of the small intestine. Function to increase surface area for absorption of nutrients. Each projection contains an arteriole, venule and lymphatic vessels
Cytoplasmic projections of the epithelial cells of the small intestine. Increases surface area for absorption. The fuzzy appearance of these cells gives the mucosa the name brush border
Lower part of the alimentary canal and is divided into three parts; Cecum, Colon and Rectum
The opening where the small intestine empties into the large intestine (Cecum)
Epithelial cells of the small intestine that produce mucus
Found in the small intestine. These are areas of rapid mitotic cell division that are involved with the continual renewal of the intestinal mucosa.
One of three parts of the large intestine. It is divided into four sections. Functions in absorption of water
One of three parts of the large intestine that forms a blind pouch. The Vermiform appendix is attached here.
Vertically positioned part of the colon that runs upward on the right side
Part of the colon that runs across the abdomen from right to left below the liver, stomach and spleen.
Vertically positioned part of the colon that runs downward on the left side of the abdomen
Last portion of the colon that joins the rectum
Last 17 to 20 cm of the intestinal tract in which stool forms and is held prior to defecation
Opening of the intestinal tract through which wastes are passed externally.
Condition in which the veins of the anal canal are enlarged.
The last 2 to 3 cm of the rectum. The opening of this structure is guarded by internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter muscle.
Wormlike tubular organ attached to the cecum. Currently belief the function is a storage organ for intestinal bacteria.
Large continuous sheet of serous membrane that lines the walls of the entire abdominal cavity. Functions in protecting the organs from injury and holds organs together
Fan-shaped projection of the parietal peritoneum from eh lumbar region of the posterior abdominal wall. Functions in allowing free movement of each coil of the intestine and helps prevent intestinal strangulation of the intestine.
Twisting or other structural change in the intestine so that blood flow to the bowels is stopped. Usually caused by a hernia.
A continuation of the serosa of the greater curvature of the stomach and the first part of the duodenum to the transverse colon. Contains fatty deposits.
Layer of the peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach
Largest gland of the body. Functions detoxification of the blood, destruction of bacteria and worn RBC, removes and stores some vitamins and produces bile.
Anatomical units of the liver. These are tiny hexagonal or pentagonal cylinders that contain a branch of the hepatic vein through the center. Function in removing bacteria and worn RBC. Also, removes and stores some vitamins as well as produces bile
Substance produced by hepatic cells of the liver that emulsify (break into tiny pieces) fat. Main components are bile salt, bile pigment and cholesterol.
Pear-shaped organ that holds 30ml to 50ml of bile. Found inferior to the liver. Functions in storage and concentration of bile
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Formation of gallstones.
Grayish pink organ located between the stomach and the duodenum. Contains an exocrine portion that produced digestive enzymes and an endocrine portion called the pancreatic islets that function in insulin and glucagon secretion.
Clusters of endocrine cells of the pancreas. Composed of beta cells and alpha cells.
Specialized cells found in the pancreas that secrete insulin a hormone involved in sugar metabolism - lowers blood glucose levels
Specialized cells found in the pancreas that secrete glucagon a hormone involved in sugar metabolism - raises blood glucose levels.
Disease caused by a virus characterized by swelling of the parotid salivary glands.
General term for inflammation or infection of the gums
Inflammation of the periodontal membrane that anchors the tooth to the bone of the jaw.
Occurs when missing teeth create wide spaces in the dentition, when teeth overlap or when malposition of one or more teeth prevents correct alignment of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches.
Crater-like wound or sore in a membrane caused by tissue destruction.
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix.
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