Interpersonal skills final exam review
Terms in this set (59)
Choose 2 of these and explain what they mean.
Self-Promotion: can help others to understand your strengths and how they can use them
Exemplification: being a model of good behavior
Supplication: a humble request for help from others can show that others are valued
Intimidation: not recommended but may be occasions you need to establish authority or control, especially if others are trying to take advantage of you
What can happen if you take ingratiation, self promotion, exemplification, supplication and intimidation too far?
Ingratiation- Insincere flattery can damage your image
Self-Promotion- Bragging can create a negative impression
Exemplification- Be careful to practice what you preach
Supplication- Don't cry wolf
Intimidation- Don't be intimidated
Medical researchers have found a link between relationships and physical health. Explain what that link means and how it relates to building strong interpersonal relationships.
People with strong personal networks, who are married, have close family and friends, are active in social and religious groups recover more quickly from disease and live longer
People with good friends usually have less stress and live longer
How long you live is determined far more by the condition of people's closest relationships than by genetics
People who have good marriages live longer than those who don't. Loners are twice as likely to die from all causes as those who enjoy close relationships
Identify and describe the 2 types of interpersonal relationships as covered in the text and PPT slides.
Personal Relationships - Based on emotional connections with friends, romantic partners and family members
Professional Relationships - Involve connections with people you associate with in order to accomplish a goal or perform a task
Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO) theory describes 3 basic interpersonal needs.
Identify and describe these 3 interpersonal needs.
The need for inclusion, control and affection.
Inclusion - The ideal social person feels accepted by others while the under social person tends to avoid associating with others because they don't feel accepted by others. The over social person tries to get others to pay attention to them because they to do not feel accepted by their peers.
Control - The need to feel influential and important. Democratic person feels that others respect them. Abdicrat person just does what they are told and the Autocrat person tries to dominate others because they feel like they don't have any influence over other people.
Affection- Is the need to be liked by others. Ideal personal type is someone who believes that some people like them and others don't and that is ok. Under personal Type people avoid friendships with others while over personal type people try to become very close with others. Both of these types are due to the person feeling like others don't like them
We interact with others to satisfy one or all 3 of the basic interpersonal needs. What is it meant by impression management and how can it help us achieve our goals?
More than just looks, it is the strategies we use to shape another person's impression of us in order to achieve some goal, such as:
Influence, power, sympathy, being liked, approval
What is a Closed-ended question and when might we use one?
Closed-ended questions limit the response and can keep the conversation contained
We might use a closed ended question when we are looking for a direct response. A yes or no answer.
what is a Open-ended question and when might we use one?
Use open-ended questions that encourage the other person to speak
We might use an open-ended question to get to know someone better; it allows people to discuss what you are asking about.
what is a turn-requesting cue?
Turn-requesting cues are verbal and nonverbal messages that signal a desire to speak:
Leaning forward, eye contact, lifting one hand
what is a Turn-yielding cue?
Turn-yielding cues are verbal and nonverbal messages that show you're finishing your comments and prepared to listen:
Slowing down your speech rate, Relaxing your posture or gestures, leaning slightly away
How do the genders differ in the way they build and maintain relationships?
Men report less intimacy, less complexity, and less contact in same-gender friendships
Women report greater continuity in their long-term, same-sex friendships
In middle and older adulthood, women value talk with their friends more than talk with their partners
Mutual and confirming talk is central to female friendships
Male friendships tend to focus on common interests, shared activities, and sociability (working on cars, building things, poker games, soccer playing)
There are 10 common stages in romantic relationships, 5 stages to developing a relationship and 5 stages that can explain how a relationship comes apart. Identify and describe the 5 stages that help to develop a relationship.
1) Initiating - Cautious and polite conversation
2) Experimenting- Share similarities and interests
3) Intensifying - More Physical contact and disclosure
4) Integrating - Individuals become a couple
Identify and describe the 5 stages that contribute to relationship deterioration
1) Differentiation - Each person becomes distinct
2) Circumscribing - Decreased communication
3) Stagnating - Less communication; more time with friends and at work
4) Avoiding - Lack desire to spend time together
5) Termination - Barriers created and each person is more concerned about self
In our desire to build strong relationships, explain what is meant by Self-disclosure?
The process of sharing personal information, opinions, and emotions with others that would not normally be known to them. Effective self-disclosure does not require sharing the most intimate details of your life to others but it does require judgements about whether and when sharing with others is appropriate.
In our desire to build strong relationships, explain what is meant by feedback?
Any form of verbal or nonverbal response you can see or hear from others
Sharing personal information and feeling with others is essential for developing meaningful relationships. The model of the Johari Window was developed to assist in understanding those connections.What 2 communication factors are measured by the Johari Window?
Willingness to Self-Disclose and Receptivity to feedback
Identify and explain the meaning of the 4 panes represented within the Johari Window and how they can change in size.
Open Area: Contains information you are willing to share with others as well as information you have learned about yourself by accurately interpreting others' feedback
Example: I self-disclose in this setting and you respond by giving me feedback that the self-disclose is appropriate, you're comfortable, and you learn something from the disclosure
Hidden Area: This represents your private self which includes information you know about yourself but that you are not YET willing to share with others, your secrets. Some people's Hidden Area is quite large and if shared could help others to understand them and appreciate things about them
Blind Area: This contains information others know about you but that you do NOT know about yourself because you don't pay attention to or correctly interpret feedback
If you don't notice that someone disapproves of your behavior or expects something that you don't pick up on, you may not develop or maintain a close relationship with them
Unknown Area: This information is unknown to both you and others
This could be some hidden talent, yet to be discovered or some weakness yet to be determined
Social Penetration Theory describes the process of relationship bonding.
Explain how the social penetration theory can help you understand the connection between self-disclosure and interpersonal closeness.
Social Penetration Theory explains that self-discloser has 3 interconnected dimensions: Depth, Breadth and Frequency. Deep self-disclosure is intimate and near the core of the onion, for example there is a big difference between telling someone they are "OK" and telling them you love them. When self-disclosure is broad it covers many topics, some very personal, some impersonal. This can be things like your religious beliefs and family values to your hobbies and job. Self-disclosure becomes more frequent as the depth and breadth of your relationship expand.
dentify and describe the 7 strategies for effective self-disclosure.
Focus on the present, not the past.
Be descriptive, not judgmental.
Disclose your feelings, not just the facts
Adapt to the person and context
Be sensitive to others' reactions
Engage in reciprocal self-disclosure
Gradually move disclosure to a deeper level
Identify and describe the 8 strategies for giving and asking for feedback
Focus on behavior, not the person.
Make it specific, not general or abstract.
Use "I" rather than "you" statements.
Focus on what was said and done, not on why it was said and done.
Focus on immediate behavior, not behavior from the past
Share information, perceptions, and feelings, not advice
Provide feedback at an appropriate time and place.
Focus on actions that both of you can change.
Gibbs stresses that there are 6 behaviours that create a supportive climate for communication and 6 that cause defensiveness. Explain what it is meant by defensive communication and what it is meant by supportive communication behaviour.
Evaluation: Judges others
Control: Imposes solutions on others
Strategy: Manipulates others
Neutrality: Detached and withdrawn
Superiority: Implies that you are better
Certainty: Believes you are always right
Description: Describes behavior
Problem Orientation: Seeks agreement
Spontaneity: Interacts openly and honestly
Empathy: Accepts and understands others
Equality: Treats everyone the same
Provisionalism: Is open to others' ideas
Strong emotional intelligence is essential to building healthy relationships. What is the definition of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)?
The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions in ourselves and in our relationships.
dentify and describe 3 of the 6 communication competencies associated with EQ.
Develop Self-Awareness - Monitor and identify our feelings in order to guide our decisions
Manage your emotions - Restrain or release our emotions when the situation is appropriate
Motivate yourself - Persevere in the face of disappointments and setbacks by seeking the support of friends, family and colleagues.
Listen to others - Use effective listening skills to ensure we understand others
Develop Interpersonal Skills - Use self-disclosure, assertive and appropriate verbal and nonverbal messages
Help others help themselves - Help others become more aware of their emotions
The Relational Dialectic Theory claims that personal relationships are characterized by dialectics. Explain the Relational Dialectics Theory.
Focuses on the ongoing tensions between contradictory impulses in personal relationships. Relational dialects takes a both/and rather than an either/or approach to interpersonal communication
Identify and discuss the 3 major interpersonal dialectics
Identify and discuss the 3 major interpersonal dialectics
1) Integration versus Separation: Desire for both connection and independence
2) Stability versus Change: Desire for both a secure, stable relationship and the novelty and excitement of change
3) Expression versus Privacy: Desire to both openly and honestly reveal personal information to another person and to protect your privacy
Rather than taking an "either/or" response to an interpersonal problem, Relational Dialectics Theory recommends a "both/and" approach when communicating with others. Explain that is meant by this "both/and" approach within a relationship.
An example would be, 2 people in a romantic relationship seek togetherness, but they also need time to be alone - time to think about personal needs, to escape the daily routine and to engage in personal interests not shared by the other person. In many close relationships, you want both the comfort of a stable relationship and the excitement of change.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality type assessment that looks at the way we see the world and how we reach conclusions and make decisions. According to Myers-Briggs, we have preferred ways of thinking and behaving that can be divided into 4 categories with 2 opposite preferences within each category. Identify and describe 2 of the 4 categories being sure to discuss the opposing preferences within each of these 2 categories
Extrovert and Introvert - Extrovert is talkative and outgoing while the Introvert is quieter and private
Sensor and Intuitive - Sensor is detail-oriented, precise and the Intuitive person sees the big picture and is innovative.
Thinker and Feeler - Thinker is task-oriented and objective while the Feeler is people-oriented and subjective.
Judger and Perceiver - The Judger is structured and punctual and the Perceiver is flexible and spontaneous.
The quality and success of your professional relationships depend on how well you communicate at work.
List and define 3 different types of professional relationships.
Superior-Subordinate Relationships - The "superior" (supervisor) has formal authority over the productivity and behavior of "subordinates" (workers), the supervisor needs to establish trust with their employees, show they care, and give honest feedback. Subordinates need to get the job done and communicate about how they are accomplishing the job. These relationships are sometimes very formal and others much less formal.
Co-Worker Relationships - We don't have authority over these people and they don't have authority over us. We have to often collaborate and coordinate our work with them in order to be successful. Satisfying co-worker relationships are often the key to success at work and often the reason why we stay in a job that we otherwise may not like.
Client Relationships - Effective and ethical communication with our "clients" will make us successful and our "agency" successful in reaching their goals. Some workers lack sufficient training in building successful client relationships. Some workers are too rigid in their approach to how they do their jobs and fail to: Be creative in their problem solving - "think outside the box", Take initiative, incorporate feedback, when appropriate to do so.
The textbook identifies 6 criteria for satisfying a co-worker relationship.
Identify and describe 2 of the 5 criteria (they all start with I)
Individual Excellence: Do both you and your colleague perform well on the job?
Interdependence: Do you have complementary skills and need one another to do the job?
Investment: Do both of you devote time and resource to helping each other succeed?
Information: Do both of you share information openly?
Integration: Do both of you have compatible values about styles of work?
Integrity: Do you treat each other with respect?
The textbook identifies 5 supervisory strategies for promoting trust and openness in the workplace
Identify and describe 2 of the 5 strategies
Behave: In a consistent and predictable manner
Honest: Keep your promises
Share: Decision-making control
Explain: Policies, procedures and decisions in a clear manner
Concern: Express concern for employee well-being
Clients may not always be right, but they should always be treated with courtesy and respect. Identify 4 strategies you could use to help calm a disruptive client and promote effective problem solving
Don't take a complaint personally.
Listen attentively and ask questions.
Try to separate the issues from the emotions.
Make statements that show you empathize.
Share information or explain the reasons for a decision, but do not argue with the client.
If you or the agency is at fault, acknowledge it and apologize.
Ask the client how she/he would like the problem to be resolved
Provide 3 strategies for minimizing workplace gossip, as listed in the text.
- Don't spread malicious rumors
- Evaluate the reliability of rumors or gossip by asking questions and checking facts
- If the gossip is creating a serious problem, talk to someone with power or influence
- When others gossip change the subject, tell them you don't want to discuss certain topics, or say your too busy to talk.
- Before self-disclosing to a co-worker, assume that your secret will be told to others.
Many of us work with friends or start friendships from work contacts.Discuss some of the challenges might be in working with our friends.
The friendship may be damaged by negative feedback given at work.
The need to withhold confidential information clashing with the need for openness in a friendship
Equal status in a friendship may be compromised by inequality at work
Collaboration with a friend may be impossible when one friend has more power
Discuss the professional challenges of working with our friends.
Friends may be held to a higher standard in terms of performance
It may be difficult to handle sensitive work information with discretion
A friendship may make it difficult to manage unequal levels of power at work
Personal knowledge and feelings about a friend may compromise objectivity at work
Workplace romance and flirting should not be confused with sexual harassment. Define sexual harassment and include 2 behaviours that represent sexual harassment
Someone is bothering you by saying or doing unwanted or unwelcome things of a sexual or gender-related nature.
Touching you inappropriately, making offensive jokes or remarks about women or men, making sexual requests or suggestions, staring at or making unwelcome comments about your body, displaying sexually offensive pictures, being verbally abusive to you because of your gender or sexual orientation
Identify and discuss the 3 components of effective group communication.
Common Goal - come together for a collective purpose
Workable Group Size- the ideal size of problem solving group is 5 -7 members
Interaction and Interdependence - comments generate feedback and feedback will generate more comments
There are both advantages and disadvantages to working in groups.
List and explain 3 advantages of working groups.
- Groups generally accomplish more and perform better than people working alone.
- Groups provide an opportunity to make friends, socialize, and feel part of a successful team.
- Groups can enhance learning when members share information, stimulate critical thinking, challenge assumptions, and expect high standards of achievement.
List and explain 3 disadvantages of working in groups.
- Group work requires time, energy, and resources.
- The behavior of some group members can be disagreeable and cause problems
- The chances for interpersonal conflicts increase in groups
Tuckman's Group Development Model identifies 4 stages in the life cycle of group. Identify and describe all 4 stages in his group development model and in the correct order
Stage 1 - Forming - Getting acquainted and comfortable with group members
Stage 2 - Storming - Competing for status and influence
Stage 3 - Norming - Defining roles and expressing opinions
Stage 4 - Preforming - Working effectively and harmoniously
Your textbook identifies task, maintenance and self-centered group roles. Identify and describe one task role, one maintenance role, and one self centered role that may occur in a group setting.
Information Seeker - Asks for relevant information; requests explanations; points out information gaps
Information Giver - Researches, organizes, and presents relevant information
Opinion Seeker - Asks for opinion; tests for agreement and disagreement
Opinion Giver - States personal belief; shares feelings; offers analysis and arguments
Encourage/Supporter - Praises and encourages group member; listens empathically
Harmonizer - Help resolve conflicts; mediates differences; encourages teamwork and group harmony
Compromiser - Offer suggestions that minimize difference; helps the group reach consensus
Tension Releaser - Uses friendly humor to alleviate tensions, tempers, and stress
Aggressor - Sarcastic, critical, antagonistic
Blocker - Delays or derails work and progress
Dominator - Interrupts, manipulates others
Recognition Seeker - Boasts and brags
3 theories about the approaches to leadership can help us to understand our own and others approaches to leadership Briefly describe the basic assumptions in trait leadership theory and styles leadership theory Then identify and describe a strength and weakness of each theory
Leaders are born, not made.
Identifies specific characteristics of good leaders:
- Self-confidence - Intelligence
- Enthusiasm - Communicator
- Trustworthiness - Organizational Skill
Weakness of Theory: Many effective leaders have very few of the desirable traits and many ineffective leaders have many of these traits
Democratic Leaders - Are often the best as they attempt to include others in decision making and power
Autocratic leaders - may have advantages in crisis or chaotic situations, as they take control of the situations and tell others what to do
Laissez-faire leaders - may only succeed in mature, productive groups, as they provide very limited leadership and let the group decide
Weakness of theory - If leaders are only one style, they cannot adapt to different types of groups nor adjust to group goals
Explain what it meant by group norms and how they assist in group functioning.
Sets of expectations held by group members concerning what kinds of behavior or opinions are acceptable or unacceptable, good or bad, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate
Group norms express the values of a group, help the group function smoothly, define appropriate and inappropriate behavior, and facilitate group success.
The 5-M Model of leadership effectiveness emphasizes specific communication strategies and skills. Identify and discuss 3 of the five functions in the 5-M Model of leadership effectiveness.
1. Model Leadership Behavior
Champion your group. Speak and listen effectively. Exhibit trustworthiness, competence, consistency and assertiveness. Study and improve your leadership skills
2. Motivate Members
Secure member commitment to goals. Provide appropriate rewards. Help resolve conflicts and interpersonal problems. Provide constructive feedback Match members to appropriate tasks
3. Manage Group Process
Organized and prepared. Adapt to member strengths and weaknesses. Help solve problems. Intervene to improve performance. Secure resources and remove roadblocks
4. Make Decisions
Share information to make a quality decision. Discuss pending decisions and solicit feedback. Listen to members before deciding. Explain the rationale for your decisions
Your textbook lists eight types of groups. Identify and describe four of these types.
Primary, Social, Self-Help, Learning, Service, Civic, Work, Public
what is the purpose of Primary, Social, Self-Help, Learning, Service, Civic, Work, Public
Primary - To provide members with affection, support, and a sense of belonging
Social - To share common interests in a friendly setting or participate in social activities
Self-Help - To support and encourage members who want or need help with personal problems
Learning - To help members gain knowledge and develop skills
Service - To assist worthy causes that help other people outside the group
Civic - To support worthy causes that help other people within the group
Work - To achieve specific goals on behalf of a business or organization
Public - To discuss important issues in front of or for the benefit of the public
What types of members would belong to Primary, Social, Self-Help, Learning, Service, Civic, Work, Public
Primary - Families, best friends
Social - Athletic team members, hobbyists, sorority and fraternity members
Self-Help - Therapy group members, participants in programs such as Weight Watchers
Learning - Classmates, book group members, participants in a ceramic workshop
Service - Members of Kiwanis, Police Athletic League, charity groups
Civic - Members of PTA, Labor unions, veterans' groups, community associations
Work - Committee members, employees, task force members, management teams
Public - Participants in a public panel discussions, symposiums, forums, governance groups
What are the 3 aspects needed for good decision making and problem solving?
1) Clear Goal - everyone needs to support the goal
2) Quality Content - Well informed makes good decisions
3) Structured Procedures - how we will make decisions and problem solve
though conforming to group norms and promoting group cohesiveness benefits groups in many ways, too much of either can be a bad thing. The book presents eight symptoms or signs of this "concept" occurring in a group.
Identify and define this concept then Identify and explain two symptoms or signs of this concept.
Groupthink - The deterioration of group effectiveness that results from in-group pressure Highly cohesive groups are at greater risk of falling into groupthink mentality.
Invulnerability - Group is overconfident; willing to take big risks
Rationalization - Group makes excuses; discounts warnings
Stereotyping outsiders - Believes opponents are too weak or stupid to make trouble
Self-Censorship - Members doubt their own reservations; are unwilling to disagree
Provide one suggestion that the group can do to avoid Invulnerability, Rationalization, Stereotyping outsiders
Assign several members to work on the same problem independently.
Invite an expert to join the group periodically to provide constructive criticism.
Identify and discuss these three methods to group decision making
Voting. Majority or two-thirds vote. Some members win, but others lose.
Consensus. When all group members agree to support a group decision
Authority Rules. When a single person or group of people outside the group makes a final decision, with or without recommendations from the group
Identify and discuss the problems of Brainstorming,Decreasing Options Technique (DOT),The Standard Agenda
Brainstorming - can generate many ideas in a short period of time. works best when members are comfortable with a freewheeling process. can fail if members are self-conscious and sensitive to implied criticism. can enhance creativity and produce numerous worthwhile ideas.
Decreasing Options Technique (DOT) - DOT helps groups reduce and refine a large number of ideas into a manageable set of options. This works best when the group is so large that open discussion of individual ideas in unworkable, when a significant number of competing ideas are generated
The Standard Agenda - Task clarification: make sure that everyone understand the group's assignment Problem identification: avoid sending the group in the wrong direction Fact finding and analysis: ask questions of fact and value Solution criteria and limitations: set standards for an ideal resolution Solution suggestions: consider multiple solutions without judgment Solution evaluation and selection: discuss the pros and cons of each suggestion Solution implementation: decide on a plan of action
Your textbook describes five decision-making styles, each of which has the potential to improve or worsen member interaction and group outcomes. Identify and describe two of these styles.
Rational decision makers - A person who carefully weighs information and options before making a decision
Intuitive decision makers - A person who make decisions based on instincts, feelings, or hunches
Dependent decision makers - A person who asks the advice and opinions of others before making a decision
Avoidant decision makers - A person who is uncomfortable making decisions, may not think about a problem at all, or will make a final decision at the last minute
Spontaneous decision makers - A person who tends to be impulsive and makes a quick decision on the spur of the moment
Regardless of how argumentative the discussion or how controversial an issue, group members should always apply ethical standards to decision making. Your textbook identifies and describes guidelines for four ethical responsibilities. Identify two of those ethical responsibilities and explain the purpose of each responsibility.
1) The Research Responsibility: Be well-informed and prepared with good information.
2) The Common Good Responsibility: Look beyond your needs and consider others.
3) The Reasoning Responsibility: Avoid presenting faulty arguments.
4) Build valid arguments: Recognize myths or mistakes.
5) The Social Code Responsibility: Promote an open and supportive climate.
The textbook suggests six guidelines for engaging in brainstorming.
Define what is meant by brainstorming.
- It can generate many ideas in a short period of time.
- It works best when members are comfortable with a freewheeling process.
- It can fail if members are self-conscious and sensitive to implied criticism.
- It can enhance creativity and produce numerous worthwhile ideas.
Identify and explain three of the suggested guidelines for using brainstorming.
Sharpen the focus - Start with a clear question or statement of the problem. Give members a few minutes to think about possible ideas before brainstorming begins.
Display ideas for all to see - Assign someone to write down the groups ideas. Post the ideas where everyone can see them
Number the ideas - Numbering can motivate a group: for example "let's try to list 100 ideas". Numbering also makes it easier to jump around between ideas.
Encourage creativity - Announce that wild and crazy ideas are welcome, announce that quantity is more important than quality.
When should you not brainstorm and why?
- In a crisis. If the group needs to make decisions quickly or follow a leaders directions.
- To repair. If the group knows what went wrong and how to fix it, organize a repair team.
- For planning. If the group knows exactly what it had to do to reach its goal, hold a planning session to map out details.
Many groups rely on consensus to make decisions. Define consensus.
A group agreement, which all members have a part in shaping and that all find at least minimally acceptable as a means of accomplishing mutual goals
Describe two guidelines for achieving genuine consensus.
Listen carefully to and respect other member's point of view.
Try to be logical rather than emotional
If there is a deadlock, work to find the best alternative that is acceptable to all
Get everyone involved in the discussion
Describe two practices to avoid when trying to achieve genuine group
Don't be stubborn and argue only for your own position
Don't change your mind to avoid conflict or reach a quick decision
Don't give in, especially if you have a crucial piece of information to share
Don't agree to a decision or solution you can't possibly support