Archaic humans having sex with less archaic humans (everything)
Terms in this set (32)
According to, (Reference) anatomically modern humans came out of Africa, spread across the globe and replaced archaic human populations. ('replacement model').
replaced archaic human populations
According to, Stringer 2001 anatomically modern humans came out of Africa, spread across the globe and ____ ____ _____ _____. ('_____ model').
Wolpoff et al. 2000
According to (Reference), a single worldwide species of humans (including archaic forms) met, migrated and had offspring to produce modern humans. ('multiregional model')
met, migrated, offspring, multiregional
According to Wolpoff et al. (2000), a single worldwide species of humans (including archaic forms) ___, _____ and had _____ to produce modern humans. ('______model')
Cann et al. 1987
Analysis of mtDNA phylogenetic trees pointed to the origin of all modern humans to a female ancestor in Africa some 200,000 years ago (so-called 'mitochondrial eve') (Reference).
mtDNA phylogenetic trees, female ancestor, 200,000, mitochondrial eve
Analysis of ____ _____ _____ pointed to the origin of all modern humans to a _____ _____ in Africa some ____ years ago (so-called '_____ ____') (Cann et al. 1987).
Prugnole et al. 2005
An African origin is supported by the fact that African populations are the most genetically diverse: genetic diversity decreases as a function of geographic distance from East/South Africa (a linear decrease in heterozygosity and increase in linkage disequilibrium) (Reference).
African populations, genetically diverse, genetic diversity, function, geoegraphic distance, East/South, heterozygosity linkage disequilibrium
An African origin is supported by the fact that ____ ____ are the most ____ ____ and ____ ____ decreases as a _____ of ____ ____ from ___/___ Africa (a linear decrease in _____ and increase in ____ _____) (Prufnole et al. 2005).
Rito et al. 2013
All mitochondrial haplogroups outside of Africa either M or N haplogroups (not found in Africa) (Reference).
mitochondrial haplogroups, M, N
All _____ _____ outside of Africa either ___ or ___ haplogroups (not found in Africa) (Rito et al. 2013).
Hellenthal et al. 2014
Modern populations show extensive evidence of (human) admixture events (85% of populations) often complex and involving multiple sources (Reference)
admixture events, 85%, multiple sources
Modern populations show extensive evidence of (human) ____ ____(___ of populations) often complex and involving ____ _____(Reference)
Harding & McVean 2004
(Reference) propose a complex 'meta-population' system of African origins of modern humans: a population of populations in which local adaptations within environmental patches promoted diversity between groups whilst gene flow and colonization of new patches over time results in extinctions and admixture of local populations and reduced diversity between previously isolated groups.
complex meta-population system of African origins, population of populations, adaptation, diversity between groups, gene flow, colonization, extinctions, admixture, local populations, diversity, isolated
Harding & McVean (2004) propose a ____ '____-____' ____ __ ____ ____ of modern humans: a ____ ___ _____ in which local _____ within environmental patches promoted ____ ____ ____ whilst ____ _____ and _____ of new patches over time results in ____ and _____ of ____ ____ and reduced _____ between previously _____ groups.
Pickrell & Reich 2014
Ancient DNA analysis has revolutionised our ability to understand the potential of gene flow and admixture in ancient populations, and is suggesting that the 'replacement model' is incomplete and that a form of 'multiregional model' with recent African origins is more appropriate (Reference)
Ancient, gene flow, admixture, ancient populations, replacement, multiregional, recent
_____ DNA analysis has revolutionised our ability to understand the potential of ___ ____ and _____ in ____ ____, and is suggesting that the '_____ model' is incomplete and that a form of '_____ model' with _____ African origins is more appropriate (Pickrell & Reich 2014)
altai, 550-750,000, 380-470,000
The Neanderthal genome from _____ suggests a divergence data with humans between ___-____ years ago, and in comparison to the _____ genome a divergence between _____-____ years ago (Prufer et al. 2014)
Green et al. (2010), 38,000, 1-4%, Eurasian, East Asians
Based on (Reference) draft sequence of the genome of a Neanderthal found in Croatia (____ya), ____ of _____ genome can be traced to Neanderthal ancestry, but none of African genomes can and ____ ____ have on average higher levels of Neanderthal ancestry than Europeans
47,000-65,000 years ago
Sankaraman et al. (2014) date Neanderthal to human gene flow to around ____-____ years ago.
Altai, Prufer et al. 2014, 20%, 1-5%
The whole genome sequence of the _____ Neanderthal by (Reference) indicates that Neanderthal ancestry is slightly higher in East Asian populations (about ___ greater ___).
Meyer et al. 2012, 4-6%
(Reference) analysed Denisovan genome in Altai mountains, southern Siberia. 'Denisovans': share ____ of DNA with Melanesians from Papau New Guinea.
Prufer et al. 2014, purifying selection
(Reference) suggest that the difference between European and East Asian Neanderthal Ancestry may be due to differences in the effecicency of _____ ______
Vernot & Akey 2015, more efficient purifying selection, second pulse
(Reference) analysed patterns of introgressed sequences in genome-wide data in Europeans and East Asians: they find little evidence of ____ ____ ____ ____ in one population over the other and find that a demographic model involving a ____ _____ of Neanderthal gene flow into ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neanderthal lineages in Europeans by an additional unknown ancestral population are consistent with the data.
Kuhlwilm et al. 2016, 5.4%, derived alleles, diverged early, ancestors, far east
(Reference) note that Altai neanderthal genome shares ____ more ___ ____ with present-day Africans than does Denisovan genome, indicating gene flow from an unknown and more deeply diverged archaic hominins into Denisovan lineage, however... analysis of Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes suggests that a population that ____ ____ from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ____ of Neanderthals from the Altai mountains but not Denisovans or European Neanderthal genomes. This indicates that the ancestors of Neanderthals from Altai mountains and early modern humans met and interbred possibly in the ___ ____ many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.
Paabo 2015, web, extinct, limited, persistent gene flow
(Reference) argues that the analysis of Neanderthal and Denisovan aDNA suggests human ancestors were part of a ____ of now ____ populations linked by ____ and sometimes ____ ___ ____. Neither the traditional 'replacement model' nor 'regional continuity model' are correct: most of human gene pool shows African origins, but 1-3% Eurasian genome has Neanderthal ancestry and up to 5% of gene pool in Oceania people shows Denisovan ancestry.
open systems, exchange
"The ancestral modern human gene pool - and the gene pools of Neanderthals, Denisovans and other extinct hominins - were ____ ____ that allowed _____ of genes among the groups when they met" - the 'hominin metapopulation' (Paabo 2015)
deeply structured, ancestral diversity, geographic expansions, serial bottlenecks, displacing, admixture
All present day humans trace their ancestry back to a ____ _____ African population holding the majority of ____ ____ which provided a source for ____ ____, associated with ____ ____ and eventually _____ populations of archaic humans whilst acquiring varying levels of ____ (Stringer 2012)
Racimo et al. 2014, Vernot & Akey 2014
A number of introgressed haplotypes have been identified across different populations that confer various adaptive benefits (Reference). Perhaps around 20% of the Neanderthal genome still exists in modern genomes (Reference).
Sankararaman et al. (2016), disambiguate, 257 genomes, 120, elevated proportions, deserts of archaic ancestry, X chromosome, reduced fertility in hybrid males, testes
(Reference) devised a model to _____ locations of segments of Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans and applied them to ___ ____ from ___ populations. In modern genomes there are some areas with ____ ____ of archaic ancestry, these may reflect areas enhanced by positive selection. There are also ____ __ ___ ____ which are elevated in genomic regions most constrained by selection. The extent of archaic ancestry is for instance significantly reduced on the ___ ____ compared to autosomes, suggesting that ___ ____ __ ____ ____, corroborated by the finding that genes expressed in the ____ are significantly depleted for Denisovan and Neanderthal ancestry.
60%, 1004, protein keratin, diabetes, lupus, Crohn's disease, nicotine
Sankararaman et al. (2016) Identified in more than ____ of _____ East Asian and European genomes an SNP that affects the function of ____ ____ in skin, nails and hair which has undergone positive selection and may have helped humans survive in cold climates. Other genes are associated with susceptibility to ____, _____, ____ ____ and even ____ addiction
Vernot & Akey 2015, distinctiveness, keratin, skin pigmentation, X chromosome
(Reference) analysed European and East Asian genomes to identify areas of the genome from archaic populations based on their _____ from African sequences: they found similar findings to Sankararaman et al. (2016), including SNPs associated with ____ and ____ ____ as well as purifying selection against deleterious genes particularly those on the __ _____.
Juric et al. 2016, purifying genes, weakly deleterious mutations, effective sizes
(Reference) have attempted to quantify the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites comparing estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency in modern day humans: their analysis leads them to suggest that East Asians had a somewhat higher frequency than Europeans before selection and that the majority of ____ ____ against Neanderthal ancestry is best understood as acting on many ____ ____ ____ which became selected against after entering human populations of larger ____ ____.