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PERSONLITY THEORIES EXAM 4
DR. JAMIE EXAM 4. CHAPTERS 16-19.
Terms in this set (39)
Medical term referring to genetic, biological, hormonal, and/or physical characteristics (including genitalia), which are used to classify an individual as male, female, or intersex at birth
social interpretations of what it means to be a man or a woman.
beliefs that we hold about how men and women differ or are supposed to differ, which are not necessarily based on reality. Can have important real-life consequences for men and women. these consequences can affect health, job, and social reputations.
those that describe sex differences as small and inconsequential
those who describe sex differences as comparable in magnitude to effect sizes in other areas of psychology, important to consider and recommend that they not be trivialized
in certain personality instruments, the masculinity dimension contains items reflecting assertiveness, boldness, dominance. the femininity dimension contains items reflecting nurturance, expression of emotions, and empathy.
cognitive orientations that lead individuals to process social information on the basis of sex-linked associations
traits that define the cultural roles associated with being a male. contains items such as dominance and assertiveness. refer to gender roles as distinct from biological sex.
a psychological dimension containing traits such as empathy and expression of emotions. refer to gender roles as distinct from biological sex
the notion that boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers and the media to be masculine. where is girls are to be feminine. theory of sex differences in personality
sex differences originate because men and women are distributed differently into occupational and family roles.
argues that men and women differ not because of external social environments but because the sexes have different amount of specific hormones
evolutionary sex differences
predicts that males and females will be the same or similar in all domains where the sexes have faced the same or similar adaptive problems (both have sweat glands for thermal regulation) and different when men and women have faced different adaptive problems (childbirth caused contractions from the release of oxycotin into the bloodstream)
witthin-group differences and btw groups differences can be of any sort--physical, psychological, behavioral, or attitudinal. it is explained by (1) a universal underlying mechanism and (2) environmental differences in the degree to which the underlying mechanism is activated
distributional coping style
researchers study the mind and the body and how the two components respond to challenges from the environment to produce illness or health
Objective events happen to a person but personality factors determine the impact of those events by influencing the person's ability to cope. personality is assumed to moderate the relation btw stress and illness
management of emotions
suggests that associations may exist btw personality and illness because a third variable is causing them both
s syndrome that occurs in some individuals after experiencing or itnessing life-threatening evennta, such as combat or natural disasters. those who suffer often relive the trigger experience for years thru nightmares or intense flashbacks, have flattened emotions and feel detached
positive coping style
a subjective feeling that is produced by uncontrollable events.
personality has three major effects; (1) it can influence coping (2) it can influence how the person interprets the event and (3) it can influence exposure to the events themselves
behaviors that society deems unacceptable.
antisocial personality disorder
a personal with a general disregard for for others and cares very little about the rights and feelings of others. also referred to a psycho/sociopath. easily irritated, irresponsible, charming and impulsive
avoidant personality disorder
a person who has feelings of inadequacy and sensitivity to criticism to others. will go to great lengths to avoid situations in which others have the opportunity to criticize their work.
borderline personality disorder
those with unstable relationships, emotions, and behaviors. have a higher incidence rate of childhood physical or sexual abuse , neglect, or early parental loss
the dominant approach to viewing personality disorders in distinct categories. there is a qualitative distinction made in which ppl who have a disorder are in one category and those who do not have a disorder are in another category
dependent personality disorder
tend to seek out others to the extreme. have an excessive need to be taken care of, be nurtured, and told what to do. act in submissive ways and needs lots of encouragement and advice from others
approaches personality disorder as a continuum that ranges from normality at one end to severe disability and disturbance at the other end. people with or without the disorder differ in degree only.
histrionic personality disorder
excessive attention seeking and emotionality. often overly dramatic, preferring to be the center of attention. often inappropriately seductive or provocative
narcissistic personality disorder
appear to have high self esteem. have a strong need to be admired, string sense of importance. lack of insight into other's feelings. exhibit feelings of entitlement.
paranoid personality disorder
extremely distrustful and sees others as a constant threat. often misinterprets social events and holds resentment toward others for slights or perceived insults
an enduring pattern of experience and behavior that differs greatly from what is expected from the individuals culture. the pattern must not result from drug use, medication, or a medical condition such as head trauma
the study of mental disorders that combines statistical, social, and psychological approaches to diagnosing individuals
preoccupied with perfection. have a high need for order that manifests in attention to details, however trivial, rituals, shchedules, and procedure. devoted to work, tend to work harder than they need to
schizoid personality disorder
seems to be detached from normal social relations. appears to have no need or desire for intimate relationships. family life not important, have few friends, rather spend time alone
schizotypical personality disorder
acutely uncomfortable in social relationships.are anxious in social situations. often feel different from others and tend to be suspicious of others. are seen as odd or eccentric
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