Upgrade to remove ads
AP Biology: Nervous System
Terms in this set (77)
Groups of similar cells performing a common function
A group of different kinds of tissues functioning together to perform a particular activity.
Two or more organs working together to accomplish a particular task.
The basic structural unit of the nervous system.
A short, abundantly branched, slender extension of the cell body that receives stimuli.
A long, slender extension of the cell body that sends nerve impulses.
The type of neurons that receive the initial stimulus.
The type of neurons that stimulate effectors in, for example, muscles, sweat glands, or cells in the stomach.
Target cells that produce some kind of response.
The type of neurons located in the spinal cord or brain that receive impulses from sensory neurons or send impulses to motor neurons.
The type of neurons that evaluate impulses for appropriate responses.
The other name for sensory neurons
The other name for motor neurons
The name for the difference in electrical charge between two places, such as the outside and inside of a membrane.
Polarization is established by maintaining an excess of ______________ ions on the outside and an excess of ______________ on the inside.
The unstimulated, polarized state of a neuron
Voltage impulses in neuronal dendrites which vary in strength.
The name for the phenomena which occurs when the membrane potential becomes more positive on the inside.
The name for the phenomena which occurs when the membrane potential becomes more negative on the inside, usually occurring because more K+ ions have moved out of the cell than are actually necessary to establish the original polarized potential.
Voltage-gated Ion Channels
These open in response to stimulus, allowing Na+ on the outside to rush into the cell.
The change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell causing complete depolarization.
The action potential is an __________________.
In response to the inflow of Na+, another voltage-gated channel opens, allowing K+ to leave the cell, restoring the original membrane polarization causing this to occur.
The recovery time needed for Na+ and K+ to be pumped back across the membrane to reestablish the resting potential.
A wrapping of myelin around certain nerve axons, serving as an electrical insulator that speeds nerve impulses to muscles and other effectors.
Cells that wrap around the nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheaths of axons in the peripheral nervous system.
Nodes of Ranvier
A gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells.
A junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
The difference in electric potential between the interior and the exterior of a biological cell.
The type of conduction occurring when the action potential jumps from node to node, thus speeding up the propagation of the impulse.
An action potential is generated when the _____________________ _____________________ is reached
The gaps between motor neurons and muscle cells, where it stimulates muscles to contract.
A rapid, involuntary response to a stimulus which consists of two or three neurons.
An organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
A group of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The part of the nervous system that carry out integration, the process of combining information from many sources, including the brain and longitudinal nerve cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The part of the nervous system that is formed by the neurons that carry information into and out of the CNS.
The process of combining information from many sources.
The cone shaped region of an axon where it joins the cell body.
The signal-passing neuron
The neuron, muscle, or gland cell that receives the signal
The connective tissue of the nervous system, consisting of several different types of cell associated with neurons.
The magnitude of the membrane voltage at equilibrium for a particular ion.
Pores formed by clusters of specialized proteins that span the membrane.
Types of glial cells that provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system, equivalent in function to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
The narrow gap that separates the presynaptic neuron from the postsynaptic cell.
Membrane-bounded compartments that contain neurotransmitters.
A change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell.
Neurotransmitters derived from animo acids
A series of interconnected nerve cells which control the contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity (a point in most organisms at which both the digestion and distribution of nutrients occurs, mostly in cnidarians, flatworms, sea anemone, etc.).
The bundling together of axons of multiple nerve cells.
The body's automatic responses to certain stimuli.
The name for the filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue, blocking the passage of certain substances.
The fluid which fills the central canal and four ventricles formed by filtration of the arterial blood in the brain.
The type of glia that provide structural support for neurons and regulate the extracellular concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters.
Bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing central nervous system which also serve as a sort of stem cell for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Nerves that connect the brain with locations mostly in organs of the head and the upper body.
Nerves that run between the spinal cord and parts of the body below the head.
The sense of smell
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that regulates the internal environment.
The network of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
The part of the brain comprising the cerebral cortex, as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The lower half of the brainstem, which is continuous with the spinal cord
The upper part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus.
The outermost layered structure of neural tissue of the cerebrum.
The diffuse network of neurons in the core of the brainstem
The part of the brain which coordinates movements and balance.
The forebrain division that develops into three adult brain regions: the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
The main input center for sensory information going to the cerebrum.
One of the most important brain regions for the control of homeostasis, through hormone regulation.
A molecular mechanism that directs periodic gene expression and cellular activity.
A thick band of axons that enables the right and left cerebral cortices to communicate
The establishment of the difference in hemisphere function in humans
Almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain which stores 'emotional memories'.
The capacity for the nervous system to be remodeled, especially in response to its own activity.
The disease involving a mental deterioration, or dementia, characterized by confusion, memroy loss, and a variety of other symptoms.
A motor disorder characterized by difficulty in initiating movements, slowness of movement, and rigidity.
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy & Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
This set is often in folders with...
AP Biology Nervous System Important Terms
Bio Root Words 9
AP Bio - Endocrine System
You might also like...
Honors Anatomy ch. 9
Chapter 48: Nervous Systems
Unit 7 - Nervous System
Cell Communication 2
Other sets by this creator
Chinese Phrase Dictation - Environmental Protection
Common Moments of Inertia
AP English Language Rhetorical Devices
Chinese Vocabulary Set 7
Other Quizlet sets
Exam 3 (part 2) ends on 182
Foundations exam 1
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration-…